' ' -
Presented to the
LIBRARY Of the
UNI VERSITY O* TORONTO
The Estate of the late
3 P WOODHOUSE
PROFESSOR A. S. P
Head of the
Department of English
SOMETIME MEMBER OF
PARLIAMENT FOR HULL:
EDITED BY G. A. AITKEN.
LONDON: NEW YORK:
A. H. SULLEN, CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS,
18 CECIL COURT, W.C 153-7 FIFTH AVENUE.
THE need for a new edition of this work
affords an opportunity for noticing a few facts
which have come to light since the book was
first issued in 1892.
The third volume of the Portland Papers
(Hist. MSS. Commission, Fourteenth Report,
Appendix 1 1.) contains some letters from Marvell
to Sir Edward Harley referring to replies to the
" Rehearsal Transprosed," and to the events of
1677. Anthony Wood (Life and Times, ed.
Clark, II. 330) records the appearance at the
end of November, 1675, of a libellous Dialogue
" between the horse with King Charles II. on the
back of it in Stocks-Market and that at Charing
Cross with Charles I. on it ; therein the Charles
II. is much lashed. Also that one morn betimes
was a pillion fastened on that horse's back be
hind King Charles II., with this written on the
horse: 'Haste, post-haste, for a midwife.'"
Wood also notes (/<., p. 414) that Marvell was
buried on Sunday, August 18, 1678, in the south
aisle in St. Giles-in-the-Fields, by the pulpit.
In a contemporary letter it is stated that he
died of apoplexy, on the i6th of August (Hist.
MSS. Commission, Thirteenth Report, Appendix
Professor Dowden has kindly shown me a
contemporary MS. collection of seventeenth
century satires in his possession, which includes
"Clarendon's House-Warming," "Advice to a
Painter," and " Britannia and Raleigh." These
satires often passed from hand to hand in
manuscript before they were printed, and con
sequently innumerable variations crept in. The
versions given in Professor Dowden's volume
differ frequently from the accepted text, but as
these variations possess no authority, I have not,
except in one or two cases, altered the text in
this edition. A list of the variations was given
by me in a paper in the Academy for August 10,
Reference will be found in the notes to
Gildon's Poetical Remains of the Duke of Buck
ingham^ . . . Mr. Andrew Marvell, &>c., 1698.
It has since been pointed out that this book was
first published in 1694, under the title Chorus
Poetarum : or, Poems on Several Occasions, by
. . . Andrew Marvell, Esq., &c. The principal
variations in the versions of " The Loyal Scot,"
and " Britannia and Raleigh," contained in this
book were noticed in the Academy for May 4,
1895. A valuable article on Marvell, by Mr.
Firth, will be found in the Dictionary of National
G. A. A.
Flecknoe, an English Priest at Rome ... ... 3
Tom May's Death 10
The Character of Holland 14
^, The Last Instructions to a Painter ... ... 20
./To the King 53
Clarendon's House-warming ... ... ... 55
Upon his House ... ... ... ... ... 61
Epigram upon his Grandchildren 62
, Farther Instructions to a Painter 63
On Blood's stealing the Crown ... ... ... 65
A Poem on the Statue in Stocks-Market ... 66
^ An Historical Poem 70
Advice to a Painter 77
"^ To the King 81
Britannia and Raleigh ... ... 82
On the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen ... 90
Nostradamus' Prophecy ... ... . . ... 95
The Statue at Charing Cross 98
A,, Dialogue between Two Horses ... ... 101
Bludius et Corona ... .. ... ... ... 113
Scaevola Scoto-Britaniius ... ... ... ... 11,
Upon the Cutting of Sir John Coventry's
The Chequer Inn 204
The Doctor turned Justice ... 213
^ Royal Resolutions 216
Hodge's Vision from the Monument ... 219
Oceana and Britannia ... 226
INDEX TO PERSONS MENTIONED 235
FLECNOE, AN ENGLISH PRIEST AT ROME.
OBLIGED by frequent visits of this man,
Whom as priest, poet, and musician,
I for some branch of Melchisedek took,
(Though he derives himself from my Lord Brooke),
(* I sought his lodging, which is at the sign
Of the sad Pelican, subject divine
I For poetry : there, three stair-cases high
Which signifies his triple property,
I found at last a chamber, as 'twas said,
But seemed a coffin set on the stair's head ; 10
Not higher than seven, nor larger than three feet
Only there was nor ceiling, nor a sheet,
Save that the ingenious door did, as you come,
Turn in, and show to wainscot half the room :
Yet of his state no man could have complained,
There being no bed where he entertained ;
4 ANDREW MARVELL.
And though within one cell so narrow pent,
He'd stanzas for a whole apartement.
Straight without farther information,
In hideous verse, he, in a dismal tone, 20
Begins to exorcise, as if I were
Possessed, and sure the devil brought me there.
But I, who now imagined myself brought
To my last trial, in a serious thought
Calmed the disorders of my youthful breast,
And to my martyrdom prepared rest.
Only this frail ambition did remain,
The last distemper of the sober brain,
That there had been some present to assure
The future ages how I did endure ; 30
7 And how I, silent, turned my burning ear
Towards the verse, and when that could not hear,
Held him the other, and unchanged yet,
Asked still for more and prayed him to repeat ;
, Till the tyrant, weary to persecute,
I Left off, and tried to allure me with his lute.
Now as two instruments to the same key
Being tuned by art, if the one touched be,
The other opposite as soon replies,
Moved by the air and hidden sympathies ; 40
So while he with his gouty fingers crawls
Over the lute, his murmuring belly calls,
Whose hungry guts, to the same straitness twined,
In echo to the trembling strings repined.
i%.A/>artement, a suite of rooms.
26. To, for.
I that perceived now what his music meant,
Asked civilly, if he had eat this Lent ?
He answered, yes ; with such, and such a one ;
For he has this of generous, that alone
He never feeds, save only when he tries
With gristly tongue to dart the passing flies. 50
I asked if he eat flesh, and he, that was
So hungry, that though ready to say mass,
Would break his fast before, said he was sick,
And the ordinance was only politic.
Nor was I longer to invite him scant,
Happy at once to make him Protestant
And silent. Nothing now dinner stayed,
But till he had himself a body made,
I mean till he were dressed ; for else so thin
He stands, as if he only fed had been 60
With consecrated wafers, and the Host
Hath sure more flesh and blood than he can boast;
This basso-relievo of a man
Who, as a camel tall, yet easily can
The needle's eye thread without any stitch
(His only impossible is to be rich,)
Lest his too subtle body, growing rare,
Should leave his soul to wander in the air,
He therefore circumscribes himself in rhymes,
And swaddled in's own papers seven times, 70
Wears a close jacket of poetic buff,
With which he doth his third dimension stuff.
Thus armed underneath, he over all
6 ANDREW MARVELL.
Does make a primitive sottana fall,
And above that yet casts an antique cloak,
Worn at the first council of Antioch,
Which by the Jews long hid, and disesteemed,
He heard of by tradition, and redeemed.
But were he not in this black habit decked,
This half-transparent man would soon reflect 80
Each colour that he passed by, and be seen
As the chameleon, yellow, blue, or green.
He dressed, and ready to disfurnish now
His chamber, whose compactness did allow
No empty place for complimenting doubt,
But who came last is forced first to go out ;
I met one on the stairs who made me stand,
Stopping the passage, and did him demand ;
I answered, " He is here, Sir, but you see
You cannot pass to him but thorough me." 90
He thought himself affronted, and replied,
" I, whom the palace never has denied,
Will make the way here ; " I said, " Sir, you'll do
Me a great favour, for I seek to go."
He, gathering fury, still made sign to draw,
But himself there closed in a scabbard saw
As narrow as his sword's ; and I that was
Delighted, said, " There can no body pass
Except by penetration hither, where
Two make a crowd, nor can three persons here 100
Consist but in one substance." Then, to fit
74. Sottana, cassock (Ital.). French, "soutane."
Our peace, the priest said I too had some wit ;
To prov't, I said, "The place doth us invite,
By its own narrowness, Sir, to unite."
He asked me pardon ; and to make me way
Went down, as I him followed to obey.
But the propitiatory priest had straight
Obliged us, when below, to celebrate
Together our atonement ; so increased
Betwixt us two, the dinner to a feast. no
Let it suffice that we could eat in peace,
And that both poems did, and quarrels, cease
During the table, though my new-made friend
Did, as he threatened, ere 'twere long intend
To be both witty and valiant ; I loth,
Said 'twas too late, he was already both.
But, now, alas ! my first tormentor came,
Who, satisfied with eating, but not tame,
Turns to recite : though judges most severe,
After the assizes' dinner, mild appear, 120
And on full stomach do condemn but few,
Yet he more strict my sentence doth renew,
And draws out of the black box of his breast
Ten quire of paper, in which he was dressed.
Yet that which was a greater cruelty
Than Nero's poem, he calls charity :
And so the Pelican, at his door hung,
Picks out the tender bosom to its young.
109. A tenement, reconciliation.
8 ANDREW MARVELL.
Of all his poems there he stands ungirt,
Save only two foul copies for his shirt ; 130
Yet these he promises as soon as clean :
But how I loathed to see my neighbour glean
Those papers, which he peeled from within
Like white flakes rising from a leper's skin !
More odious than those rags which the French youth
At ordinaries after dinner show'th,
When they compare their chancres and poulains !
Yet he first kissed them, and after takes pains
To read, and then, because he understood
Not one word, thought and swore that they were good.
But all his praises could not now appease 140
The provoked author, whom it did displease
To hear his verses, by so just a curse,
That were ill made, condemned to be read worse :
And how (impossible !) he made yet more
Absurdities in them than were before ;
For he his untuned voice did fall or raise
As a deaf man upon a viol plays,
Making the half-points and the periods run
Confuseder than the atoms in the sun. 150
Thereat the poet swelled with anger full,
And roared out like Perillus in's own bull :
" Sir, you read false." " That, any one, but you,
Should know the contrary." Whereat, I now
Made mediator in my room, said, " Why?
To say that you read false, Sir, is no lie."
Thereat the waxen youth relented straight,
But saw with sad despair that 'twas too late ;
For the disdainful poet was retired
Home, his most furious satire to have fired 160
Against the rebel ; who, at this struck dead,
Wept bitterly as disinherited.
Who should commend his mistress now ? Or who
Praise him ? Both difficult indeed to do
With truth. I counselled him to go in time,
Ere the fierce poet's anger turned to rhyme.
He hasted ; and I, finding myself free,
As one 'scaped strangely from captivity,
Have made the chance be painted ; and go now
To hang it in Saint Peter's for a vow. 170
io ANDRE W MAR VELL .
TOM MAY'S DEATH.
As one put drunk into the packet-boat,
TOM MAY was hurried thence, and did notknow't ;
But was amazed on the Elysian side,
And, with an eye uncertain gazing wide,
Could not determine in what place he was,
(For whence, in Steven's alley, trees or grass ?)
Nor where the Pope's Head, nor the Mitre lay,
Signs by which still he found and lost his way.
At last, while doubtfully he all compares,
He saw near hand, as he imagined, ARES. io
Such did he seem for corpulence and port,
But 'twas a man much of another sort ;
'Twas BEN, that in the dusky laurel shade,
Amongst the chorus of old poets, laid,
Sounding of ancient heroes, such as were
The subject's safety, and the rebel's fear ;
And how a double-headed vulture eats
BRUTUS and CASSIUS, the people's cheats ;
But, seeing MAY, he varied straight his song,
Gently to signify that he was wrong. 20
Cups more than civil of Emathian wine,
I sing (said he) and the Pharsalian sign,
TOM MA Y'S DEA TH. 1 1
Where the historian of the Commonwealth
In his own bowels sheathed the conquering health.
By this MAY to himself and them was come ;
He found he was translated, and by whom ;
Yet then with foot as stumbling as his tongue,
Pressed for his place among the learned throng ;
But BEN, who knew not neither foe nor friend,
Sworn enemy to all that do pretend, 30
Rose more than ever he was seen severe,
Shook his gray locks, and his own bays did tear
At this intrusion ; then, with laurel wand,
The awful sign of his supreme command,
At whose dread whisk VIRGIL himself does quake,
And HORACE patiently its stroke doth take,
As he crowds in, he whipped him o'er the pate,
Like PEMBROKE at the masque, and then did rate :
" Far from these blessed shades tread back again,
Most servile wit, and mercenary pen. 40
Polydore, Lucan, Alan, Vandal, Goth,
Malignant poet and historian both.
Go seek the novice statesmen and obtrude
On them some Roman cast similitude
Tell them of liberty, the stories fine,
Until you all grow consuls in your wine,
Or thou, dictator of the glass, bestow
On him the CATO, this the CICERO,
Transferring old Rome hither in your talk,
As BETHLEM'S house did to LORETTO walk. 50
41. Polydore, Polydore Virgil.
12 ANDREW MARVELL.
Foul architect ! that hadst not eye to see
How ill the measures of these states agree,
And who by Rome's example England lay,
Those but to LUCAN do continue MAY ;
But thee, nor ignorance, nor seeming good
Misled, but malice fixed and understood.
Because some one than thee more worthy wears
The sacred laurel, hence are all these tears.
Must therefore all the world be set on flame
Because a Gazette-writer missed his aim ? 60
And for a tankard-bearing muse must we,
As for the basket, Guelphs and Ghibelines be ?
When the sword glitters o'er the judge's head,
And fear has coward churchmen silenced,
Then is the poet's time, 'tis then he draws,
And single fights forsaken virtue's cause.
He, when the wheel of empire whirleth back,
And though the world's disjointed axle crack,
Sings still of ancient rights and better times,
Seeks wretched good, arraigns successful crimes ; 70
But thou, base man, first prostituted hast
Our spotless knowledge and the studies chaste,
Apostatizing from our arts and us,
To turn the chronicler to SPARTACUS ;
Yet wast thou taken hence with equal fate,
Before thou couldst great CHARLES his death relate,
But what will deeper wound thy little mind,
Hast left surviving DAVENANT still behind,
, TOM MAY'S DEATH. 13
Who laughs to see, in this thy death, renewed
Right Roman poverty and gratitude. 80
Poor poet thou, and grateful senate they,
Who thy last reckoning did so largely pay,
And with the public gravity would come,
When thou hadst drunk thy last, to lead thee home,
If that can be thy home where SPENSER lies,
And reverend CHAUCER ; but their dust does rise
Against thee, and expels thee from their side,
As the eagle's plumes from other birds divide :
Nor here thy shade must dwell ; return, return,
Where sulphury PHLEGETHON does ever burn ! 90
There CERBERUS with all his jaws shall gnash,
MEG^ERA thee with all her serpents lash ;
Thou, riveted unto IXION'S wheel,
Shalt break, and the perpetual vulture feel !
'Tis just what torments poets e'er did feign,
Thou first historically shouldst sustain."
Thus, by irrevocable sentence cast,
MAY only master of these revels passed ;
And straight he vanished in a cloud of pitch,
Such as unto the Sabbath bears the witch. 100
14 ANDREW MARVELL.
THE CHARACTER OF HOLLAND.
HOLLAND, that scarce deserves the name of land,
As but the off-scouring of the British sand,
And so much earth as was contributed
By English pilots when they heaved the lead,
Or what by the ocean's slow alluvion fell
Of shipwracked cockle and the mussel -shell,
This indigested vomit of the sea
Fell to the Dutch by just propriety.
Glad then, as miners that have found the ore,
They, with mad labour, fished the land to shore, 10
And dived as desperately for each piece
Of earth, as ift had been of ambergris,
Collecting anxiously small loads of clay,
Less than what building swallows bear away,
Or than those pills which sordid beetles roll,
Transfusing into them their dunghill soul.
How did they rivet with gigantic piles,
Thorough the centre their new-catched miles ?
And to the stake a struggling country bound,
Where barking waves still bait the forced ground, 20
^.Alluvium, a deposit of matter suspended in water.
8. Because of their drinking habits.
THE, CHARACTER OF HOLLAND. 15
Building their watery Babel far more high
To reach the sea, than those to scale the sky !
Yet still his claim the injured ocean laid,
And oft at leap-frog o'er their steeples played,
As if on purpose it on land had come
To show them what's their mare liberum.
A daily deluge over them does boil ;
The earth and water play at level coil.
The fish ofttimes the burgher dispossessed,
And sat, not as a meat, but as a guest, 30
And oft the Tritons and the sea-nymphs saw
Whole shoal of Dutch served up for cabillau ;
Or, as they over the new level ranged
For pickled herring, pickled lueren changed.
Nature, it seemed, ashamed of her mistake,
Would throw their land away at duck and drake ;
Therefore necessity, that first made kings,
Something like government among them brings ;
For, as with pygmies, who best kills the crane,
Among the hungry he that treasures grain, 40
Among the blind the one-eyed blinkard reigns,
So rules among the drowned he that drains :
Not who first sees the rising sun, commands,
But who could first discern the rising lands ;
Who best could know to pump an earth so leak,
Him they their Lord, and Country's Father, speak ;
To make a bank, was a great plot of state ;
Invent a shovel, and be magistrate.
32. Cabillaud (French), codfish.
16 ANDREW MARVELL.
Hence some small dyke-grave, unperceived, invades
The power, and grows, as 'twere, a king of spades ; 50
But, for less envy, some joint states endures,
Who look like a commission of the sewers :
For these Half-anders, half wet, and half dry,
Nor bear strict service, nor pure liberty.
'Tis probable religion, after thi$,
Came next in order, which they could not miss ;
How could the Dutch but be converted, when
The Apostles were so many fishermen ?
Besides, the waters of themselves did rise,
And, as their land, so them did re-baptize. 60
Though Herring for their God few voices missed,
And Poor -John to have been the Evangelist.
Faith, that could never twins conceive before,
Never so fertile, spawned upon this shore,
More pregnant than their Margaret, that laid down
For Hans-in-Kelder of a whole Hans-Town.
Sure when religion did itself embark,
And from the east would westward steer its ark,
It struck, and splitting on this unknown ground,
Each one thence pillaged the first piece he found ; 70
Hence Amsterdam, Turk-Christian-Pagan-Jew ;
Staple of sects, and mint of schism grew ;
That bank of conscience, where not one so strange
Opinion but finds credit, and exchange.
49> Dyke-grave. One who inspected the dykes (" Graf").
$$. Half-anders, a pun on " Hoi-landers."
62. -A small fish, similar but inferior to the cod.
66- Jack-in-the-cellar, an unborn child.
CHARACTER OF HOLLAND. 17
In vain for Catholics ourselves we bear ;
The universal church is only there.
Nor can civility there want for tillage,
Where wisely for their Court they chose a village ;
How fit a title clothes their governors,
Themselves the Hogs, as all their subjects boors ! 80
Let it suffice to give their country fame,
That it had one Civilis called by name,
Some fifteen hundred and more years ago,
But surely never any that was so.
See but their mermaids, with their tails of fish,
Reeking at church over the chafing-dish !
A vestal turf, enshrined in earthern ware,
Fumes through the loopholes of a wooden square ;
Each to the temple with these altars tend,
(But still does place it at her western end j) 90
While the fat steam of female sacrifice
Fills the priest's nostrils, and puts out his eyes.
Or what a spectacle the skipper gross,
A water Hercules, butter Coloss,
Tunned up with all their several towns of beer ;
When, staggering upon some land, snick and sneer,
They try, like statuaries, if they can
Cut out each other's Athos to a man,
And carve in their large bodies, where they please,
The arms of the United Provinces. 100
78. The Hague.
96." Snick and snee" is a combat with knives.
1 8 ANDREW MARVELL.
But when such amity at home is showed,
What then are their confederacies abroad ?
Let this one courtesy witness all the rest,
When their whole navy they together pressed,
Not Christian captives to redeem from bands,
Or intercept the western golden sands,
No, but all ancient rights and leagues must vail,
Rather than to the English strike their sail ;
To whom their weather-beaten province owes
Itself, when, as some greater vessel tows no
A cock-boat, tossed with the same wind and fate,
We bouyed so often up their sinking state.
Was tius jus belli et pads ? Could this be
Cause why their burgomaster of the sea,
Rammed with gunpowder, flaming with brand-wine,
Should raging hold his linstock to the mine ?
While, with feigned treaties, they invade by stealth
Our sore new-circumcised commonwealth.
Yet of his vain attempt no more he sees,
Than of case-butter shot, and bullet cheese ; 120
And the torn navy staggered with him home,
While the sea laughed itself into a foam.
'Tis true, since that, (as fortune kindly sports)
A wholesome danger drove us to our ports,
While half their banished keels the tempest tossed,
Half bound at home in prison to the frost ;
i?o. Round Dutch cheeses and tub-butter.
THE CHARACTER OF HOLLAND. 19
That ours, meantime, at leisure might careen,
In a calm winter, under skies serene,
As the obsequious air and waters rest,
Till the dear Halcyon hatch out all its nest. 130
The commonwealth doth by its losses grow,
And, like its own seas, only ebbs to flow ;
Besides, that very agitation laves,
And purges out the corruptible waves.
And now again our armed Bucentaur
Doth yearly their sea-nuptials restore ;
And now the Hydra of seven provinces.
Is strangled by our infant Hercules.
Their tortoise wants its vainly stretched neck,
Their navy, all our conquest, or our wreck ; 140
Or, what is left, their Carthage overcome,
Would render fain unto our better Rome ;
Unless our senate, lest their youth disuse
The war (but who would ?), peace, if begged, refuse.
For now of nothing may our state despair,
Darling of Heaven, and of men the care,
Provided that they be, what they have been,
Watchful abroad, and honest still within.
For while our Neptune doth a trident shake,
Steeled with those piercing heads, Deane, Monck, and
And while Jove governs in the highest sphere,
Vainly in hell let Pluto domineer.
135. The state barge of Venke.
20 ANDREW MARVELL.
THE LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER
ABOUT THE DUTCH WARS, 1667.
AFTER two sittings, now our Lady State,
To end her picture, does the third time wait ;
But ere thou fall'st to work, first, Painter, see,
If t ben't too slight grown or too hard for thee.
Canst thou paint without colours ? Then 'tis right :
For so we too without a fleet can fight.
Or canst thou daub a sign-post, and that ill ?
'Twill suit our great debauch, and little skill.
Or hast thou marked how antique masters limn
The alley-roof with snuff of candle dim, 10
H Sketching in shady smoke prodigious tools ?
'Twill serve this race of drunkards, pimps, and fools.
But if to match our crimes thy skill presumes,
As the Indians draw our luxury in plumes,
Or if to score out our compendious fame,
With Hooke then through your microscope take aim,
Where, like the new Comptroller, all men laugh,
To see a tall louse brandish a white staff ;
Else shalt thou oft thy guiltless pencil curse,
Stamp on thy pallet, not perhaps the worse. 20
9. Antique. Perhaps a quibble on "antic."
14. Feather paintings.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 21
The painter so long having vexed his cloth,
Of his hound's mouth to feign the raging froth,
His desperate pencil at the work did dart ;
His anger reached that rage which passed his art ;
Chance finished that, which art could but begin,
And he sat smiling how his dog did grin ;
So may'st thou perfect by a lucky blow,
What all thy softest touches cannot do.
Paint then St. Albans full of soup and gold,
The new Court's pattern, stallion of the old ; 30
Him neither wit nor courage did exalt,
But Fortune chose him for her pleasure's salt.
Paint him with drayman's shoulders, butcher's mien,
Membered like mule, with elephantine chin.
Well he the title of St. Albans bore,
For never Bacon studied nature more ;
But age, allaying now that youthful heat, -
Fits him in France to play at cards, and treat. -
Draw no commission, lest the Court should lie, -
And, disavowing treaty, ask supply. 40
He needs no seal but to St. James's lease,
Whose breeches were the instruments of peace ;
Who, if the French dispute his power, from thence
Can straight produce them a plenipotence.
Nor fears he the Most Christian should trepan
Two saints at once, St. German and Alban ;
But thought the golden age was now restored,
When men and women took each other's word.
46. A Play on Jermyn's names-
22 ANDREW MARVELL.
Paint then again her Highness to the life,
Philosopher beyond Newcastle's wife. 50
She naked can Archimedes' self put down,
For an experiment upon the crown.
She perfected that engine oft essayed,
How after child-birth to renew a maid ;
And found how royal heirs might be matured
In fewer months than mothers once endured.
Hence Crowder made the rare inventress free -
Of s Highness's Royal Society.
Happiest of women if she were but able
To make her glassen Duke once malleable. 60
Paint her with oyster-lip, and breath of fame,
Wide mouth, that sparagus may well proclaim ; -
With chancellor's belly, and so large a rump,
Where (not behind the coach) her pages jump.
Express her studying now, if China clay
Can, without breaking, venomed juice convey : '
Or how a mortal poison she may draw
Out of the cordial meal of the cocoa.
Witness ye stars of night, and thou the pale [70
Moon, that o'ercome with the sick steam, didst fail :
Ye neighbouring elms, which your green leaves did
And fawns which from the womb abortive fled.
Not unprovoked she tries forbidden arts,
But in her soft breast love's hid cancer smarts ;
fo. Glasses inflexible.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 23
While she resolves at once Sidney's disgrace,
And herself scorned for emulous Denham's face
And nightly hears the hated guard, away
Galloping with the Duke to other prey.
Paint Castlemaine in colours which will hold
Her, not her picture, for she now grows old. 80
She through her lackey's drawers, as he ran,
Discerned love's cause, and a new flame began.
Her wonted joys thenceforth, and Court, she shuns,
And still within her mind the footman runs ;
His brazen calves, his brawny thighs, (the face
She slights) his feet shaped for a smoother race !
Then, poring with her glass, she re-adjusts
Tier locks, and oft-tired beauty now distrusts ;
Fears lest he scorned a woman once assayed,
And now first wished she e'er had been a maid. 90
Great Love ! how dost thou triumph, and how reign,
That to a groom couldst humble her disdain !
Stripped to her skin, see how she stooping stands,
Nor scorns to rub him down with those fair hands,
And washing (lest the scent her crime disclose)
His sweaty hoofs, tickles him 'twixt the toes.
But envious fame too soon began to note
More gold in 's fob, more lace upon his coat ;
And he unwary, and of tongue too fleet,
No longer could conceal his fortune sweet. 100
Justly the rogue was whipped in Porter's den,
And Jermyn straight has leave to come again.
88. Oft-tired, oft-dressed.
24 ANDREW MARVELL.
Ah, Painter ! now could Alexander live,
And this Campaspe to Apelles give !
Draw next a pair of tables opening, then
The House of Commons clattering like the men.
Describe the Court and country both set right
On opposite points, the black against the white ;
Those having lost the nation at trick-track,
These now adventuring how to win it back. no
The dice betwixt them must the fate divide,
As chance does still in multitudes decide.
But here the Court doth its advantage know,
For the cheat, Turner, for them both must throw ;
As some from boxes, he so from the chair
Can strike the die, and still with them go share.
Here, Painter, rest a little and survey
With what small arts the public game they play
F*or so too, Rubens, with affairs of state,
His labouring pencil oft would recreate. 120
The close Cabal marked how the navy eats,
And thought all lost that goes not to the cheats :
So therefore secretly for peace decrees,
Yet for a war the Parliament would squeeze ;
And fix to the revenue such a sum
Should Goodrick silence, and make Paston dumb,
Should pay land armies, should dissolve the vain
Commons, and ever such a Court maintain,
105, 106. Backgammon, and the thirty men of the game.
109. A variety of the game, sometimes called tick-tack.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 25
Hyde's avarice, Bennet's luxury, should suffice,
And what can these defray but the excise ? 130
Excise, a monster worse than e'er before
Frighted the midwife, and the mother tore.
A thousand hands she has, a thousand eyes,
Breaks into shops, and into cellars pries ;
With hundred rows of teeth the shark exceeds,
And on all trades, like casawar, she feeds ;
Chops off the piece where'er she close the jaw,
Else swallows all down her indented maw.
She stalks all day in streets, concealed from sight,
And flies like bats with leathern wings by night ; 140
She wastes the country, and on cities preys.
Her, of a female harpy in dog-days,
Black Birch, of all the earth-born race most hot,
And most rapacious, like himself begot ;
And of his brat enamoured, as 't increased,
B in incest with the mongrel beast.
Say, Muse, for nothing can escape thy sight,
(And Painter, wanting other, draw this fight,)
Who in an English senate fierce debate
Could raise so long, for this new whore of State. 150
Of early wittols first the troop marched in,
For diligence renowned, and discipline ;
In loyal haste they left young wives in bed,
And Denham these with one consent did head.
129. Hyde. The Earl of Clarendon.
136. Casuarius Cassowary, the Asiatic ostrich.
26 ANDREW MARVELL.
Of the old courtiers next a squadron came,
Who sold their master, led by Ashburnham.
To them succeeds a despicable rout,
But knew the word, and well could face about ;
Expectants pale, with hopes of spoil allured,
Though yet but pioneers, and led by Steward. 160
Then damning cowards ranged the vocal plain ;
Wood these commands, knight of the horn and cane :
Still his hook-shoulder seems the blow to dread,
And under 's arm-pit he defends his head.
The posture strange men laugh at, of his poll
Hid with his elbow like the spice he stole ;
Headless St. Dennis so his head does bear,
And both of them alike French martyrs were.
Court officers, as used, the next place took,
And followed Fox, but with disdainful look ; 170
His birth, his youth, his brokage, all dispraise
In vain, for always he commands that pays.
Then the procurers under Prodgers filed,
Gentlest of men, and his lieutenant mild,
Bronkard, love's squire ; through all the field arrayed,
No troop was better clad, nor so well paid.
Then marched the troop of Clarendon, all full,
Haters of fowl, to teal preferring bull ;
Gross bodies, grosser minds, and grosser cheats ;
And bloated Wren conducts them to their seats. 180
Charlton advances next (whose coife does awe
The mitred troop) and with his looks gives law.
He marched with beaver cocked of bishop's brim,
And hid much fraud under an aspect grim.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 27
Next do the lawyers, sordid band, appear,
Finch in the front, and Thurland in the rear.
The troop of privilege, a rabble bare
Of debtors deep, fell to Trelawney's care ;
Their fortune's error they supplied in rage,
Nor any farther would than these engage. 190
Then marched the troop, whose valiant acts before
(Their public acts), obliged them to do more,
For chimney's sake they all Sir Pool obeyed,
Or, in his absence, him that first it laid.
Then came the thrifty troop of privateers,
Whose horses each with other interferes :
Before them Iliggins rides with brow compact,
Mourning his Countess, anxious for his Act.
Sir Frederick and Sir Solomon draw lots,
For the command of politics or Scots ; 200
Thence fell to words ; but quarrels to adjourn,
Their friends agreed they should command by turn.
Carteret the rich did the accountants guide,
And in ill English all the world defied.
The Papists (but of those the house had none
Else) Talbot offered to have led them on.
Bold Duncombe next, of the projectors chief,
And old Fitz Harding of the Eaters Beef.
Late and disordered out the drunkards drew,
Scarce them their leaders, they their leaders knew. 210
Before them entered, equal in command,
Apsley and Brotherick marching hand in hand.
28 ANDREW MARVELL.
Last then but one, Powell, that could not ride,
Led the French standard weltering in his stride ;
He, to excuse his slowness, truth confessed,
That 'twas so long before he could be dressed.
The lord's sons last all these did reinforce,
Cornbury before them managed hobby-horse.
Never before nor since an host so steeled
Trooped on to muster in the Tuttle-field. 220
Not the first cock-horse that with cork was shod
To rescue Albemarle from the sea-cod :
Nor the late feather-men, whom Tomkins fierce
Shall with one breath like thistle-clown disperse.
All the two Coventrys their generals chose,
For one had much, the other nought to lose.
Not better choice all accidents could hit,
While hector Harry steers by Will the wit.
They both accept the charge with merry glee,
To fight a battle from all gunshot free. 230
Pleased with their numbers, yet in valour wise,
They feigned a parley, better to surprise ;
They who ere long shall the rude Dutch upbraid,
Who in a time of treaty durst invade.
Thick was the morning, and the House was thin,
The Speaker early, when they all fell in.
Propitious heavens ! had not you them crossed,
Excise had got the day, and all been lost :
For t'other side all in loose quarters lay
Without intelligence, command or pay ; 240
A scattered body, which the foe ne'er tried,
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 29
But often did among themselves divide.
And some run o'er each night, while others sleep,
And undescried returned 'fore morning peep.
But Strangways, who all night still walked the round,
For vigilance and courage both renowned,
First spied the enemy, and gave the alarm,
Fighting it single till the rest might arm ;
Such Roman Codes strid before the foe,
The failing bridge behind, the streams below. 250
Each ran as chance him guides to several post,
And all to pattern his example, boast ;
Their former trophies they recall to mind,
And to new edge their angry courage, grind.
First entered forward Temple, conqueror
Of Irish cattle, and solicitor.
Then daring Seymour, that with spear and shield
Had stretched the monster patent on the field.
Keen Whorwood next in aid of damsel frail,
That pierced the giant Mordaunt through his mail :
And surly Williams the accountant's bane, [260
And Lovelace young of chimney-men the cane.
Old Waller, trumpet-general, swore he'd write
This combat truer than the naval right.
Of birth, state, wit, strength, courage, Howard pre
And in his breast wears many Montezumes.
These, with some more, with single valour stay
The adverse troops, and hold them all at bay.
Each thinks his person represents the whole,
30 ANDREW MARVELL.
And with that thought does multiply his soul ; 270
Believes himself an army ; there's one man,
As easily conquered ; and believing, can
With heart of bees so full and head of mites,
That each, though duelling, a battle fights.
So once Orlando, famous in romance,
Broached whole brigades like larks upon his lance.
But strength at last still under number bows,
And the faint sweat trickled down Temple's brows ;
Even iron Strangways chafing yet gave back,
Spent with fatigue, to breathe awhile tobac. 280
When marching in, a seasonable recruit
Of citizens and merchants held dispute,
And charging all their pikes, a sullen band
Of Presbyterian Switzers made a stand.
Nor could all these the field have long maintained
But for the unknown reserve that still remained ;
A gross of English gentry, nobly born,
Of clear estates, and to no faction sworn,
Dear lovers of their King, and death to meet
For country's cause, that glorious think and sweet ;
To speak not forward, but in action brave, [290
In giving generous, but in council grave ;
Candidly credulous for once, nay twice ;
But sure the devil cannot cheat them thrice.
The van in battle, though retiring, falls
Without disorder in their intervals,
Then closing all, in equal front, fall on,
Led by great Garroway, and great Littleton.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 31
Lee equal to obey, or to command,
Adjutant-general was still at hand. 300
The marshal standard, Sands displaying, shows
St. Dunstan in it tweaking Satan's nose.
See sudden chance of war, to paint or write,
Is longer work, and harder than to fight :
At the first charge the enemy give out,
And the excise receives a total rout.
Broken in courage, yet the men the same,
Resolve henceforth upon their other game :
Where force had failed, with stratagem to play,
And what haste lost, recover by delay. 310
St. Albans straight is sent to, to forbear,
Lest the sure peace (forsooth) too soon appear.
The seamen's clamours to three ends they use,
To cheat they pay, feign want, the House accuse.
Each day they bring the tale, and that too true,
How strong the Dutch their equipage renew ;
Meantime through all the yards their orders run,
To lay the ships up, cease the keels begun.
The timber rots, the useless axe does rust ;
The unpractised saw lies buried in its dust ; 320
The busy hammer sleeps, the ropes untwine ;
The store and wages all are mine and thine ;
Along the coasts and harbours they take care
That money lacks, nor forts be in repair.
Long thus they could against the House conspire,
Load them with envy, and with sitting tire ;
And the loved King, that's never yet denied,
32 ANDREW MARVELL.
Is brought to beg in public, and to chide :
But when this failed, and months enough were spent,
They with the first day's proffer seem content ; 330
And to land-tax from the excise turn round,
Bought off with eighteen hundred thousand pound.
Thus like fair thieves, the Commons' purse they share,
But all the members' lives consulting spare.
Blither than hare that hath escaped the hounds,
The House prorogued, the Chancellor rebounds.
Not so decrepit ^Eson, hashed and stewed
With magic herbs, rose from the pot renewed,
And with fresh age felt his glad limbs unite ;
His gout (yet still he cursed) had left him quite. 340
What frosts to fruits, what arsenic to the rat,
What to fair Denham mortal chocolate,
What an account to Carteret, that and more,
A parliament is to the chancellor.
So the sad tree shrinks from the morning's eye,
But blooms all night and shoots its branches high ;
So at the sun's recess, again returns
The comet dread, and earth and heaven burns.
Now Mordaunt may within his castle tower
Imprison parents, and their child deflower. 350
The Irish herd is now let loose, and comes
By millions over, not by hecatombs ;
And, now, now the Canary patent may
Be broached again for the great holy-day.
See how he reigns in his new palace culminant,
And sits in state divine like Jove the fulminant.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 33
First Buckingham that durst 'gainst him rebel,
Blasted with lightning, struck with thunder fell ;
Next the twelve commons are condemned to groan,
And roll in vain at Sisyphus's stone. 360
But still he cared, whilst in revenge he braved,
That peace secured, and money might be saved.
Gain and revenge, revenge and gain, are sweet ;
United most, when most by turns they meet.
France had St. Albans promised (so they sing),
St. Albans promised him, and he the King.
The Count forthwith is ordered all to close,
To play for Flanders, and the stake to lose ;
While chained together, two ambassadors
Like slaves shall beg for peace at Holland's doors. 370
This done, among his Cyclops he retires
To forge new thunder, and inspect their fires.
The Court, as once of war, now fond of peace,
All to new sports their wonted fears release.
From Greenwich (where intelligence they hold)
Comes news of pastime martial and old.
A punishment invented first to awe
Masculine wives transgressing nature's law j
Where when the brawny female disobeys,
And beats the husband, till for peace he prays, 380
No concerned jury damage for him finds,
Nor partial justice her behaviour binds ;
But the just street does the next house invade,
Mounting the neighbour couple on lean jade.
The distaff knocks, the grains from kettle fly,
34 ANDREW MAR FELL.
And boys and girls in troops run hooting by.
Prudent antiquity ! that knew by shame,
Better than law, domestic broils to tame ;
And taught the youth by spectacle innocent :
So thou and I, dear Painter, represent 390
In quick effigy, others' faults ; and feign,
By making them ridiculous, to restrain ;
With homely sight they chose thus to relax
The joys of state for the new peace and tax.
So Holland with us had the mastery tried,
And our next neighbours, France and Flanders, ride.
But a fresh news the great designment nips
Off, at the isle of Candy, Dutch and ships ;
Bab May and Arlington did wisely scoff,
And thought all safe if they were so far off. 400
Modern geographers ! 'twas there they thought,
Where Venice twenty years the Turks had fought,
(While the first year the navy is but shown,
The next divided, and the third we've none. )
They by the name mistook it for that isle,
Where pilgrim Palmer travelled in exile,
With the bull's horn to measure his own head,
And on Pasiphae's tomb to drop a bead.
But Morice learned demonstrates by the post,
This isle of Candy was on Essex coast. 410
Fresh messengers still the sad news assure,
More timorous now we are than first secure.
False terrors our believing fears devise,
And the French army one from Calais spies.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 35
Bennet and May, and those of shorter reach,
Change all for guineas, and a crown for each ;
But wiser men, and well foreseen in chance,
In Holland theirs had lodged before, and France ;
Whitehall's unsafe, the Court all meditates
To fly to Windsor, and mure up the gates. 420
Each doth the other blame, and all distrust,
But Mordaunt new obliged would sure be just.
Not such a fatal stupefaction reigned
At London's flames, nor so the Court complained.
The Bludworth Chancellor gives (then does recall)
Orders, amazed ; at last gives none at all.
St. Albans writ too, that he may bewail
To Monsieur Lewis, and tell coward tale,
How that the Hollanders do make a noise,
Threaten to beat us, and are naughty boys. 430
Now Doleman 's disobedient, and they still
Uncivil, his unkindness would us kill :
Tell him our ships unrigged, our forts unmanned,
Our money spent, else 'twere at his command ;
Summon him therefore of his word, and prove
To move him out of pity, if not love ;
Pray him to make De Witt and Ruyter cease,
And whip the Dutch unless they'll hold their peace.
But Lewis was of memory but dull,
And to St. Albans too undutiful ; 440
Nor word nor near relation did revere,
415. Bennet, Arlington, as elsewhere. May, Bab May, as
36 ANDREW MARVELL.
But asked him bluntly for his character.
The gravelled Count did with this answer faint
(His character was that which thou didst paint),
And so enforced like enemy or spy,
Trusses his baggage, and the camp does fly :
Yet Lewis writes, and lest our hearts should break,
Condoles us morally out of Senec.
Two letters next unto Breda are sent,
In cipher one to Harry Excellent. 450
The first entrusts (our verse that name abhors)
To prove by Scripture, treaty does imply
Cessation, as the look adultery ;
And that by law of arms, in martial strife,
Who yields his sword, has title to his life.
Presbyter Holies the first point should clear,
The second Coventry the cavalier :
But, would they not be argued back from sea,
Then to return home straight infecta re. 460
But Harry 's ordered, if they won't recall
Their fleet, to threaten, we will give them all.
The Dutch are then in proclamation shent,
For' sin against the eleventh commandment.
Hyde's flippant style there pleasantly curvets,
Still his sharp wit on states and princes whets :
442. Character^ credentials.
450. See 1. 369, note.
463. Shent, blamed.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TQ A PAINTER. 37
So Spain could not escape his laughter's spleen,
None but himself must choose the king a queen.
But when he came the odious clause to pen,
That summons up the Parliament again, 470
His writing-master many times he banned,
And wished himself the gout to seize his hand.
Never old lecher more repugnant felt,
Consenting for his rupture to be gelt.
But still in hope he solaced, ere they come
Tb work the peace, and so to send them home ;
Or in their hasty call to find a flaw,
Their acts to vitiate, and them overawe :
But more relied upon this Dutch pretence,
To raise a two-edged army for 's defence. 480
First then he marched our whole militia's force,
(As if, alas ! we ships, or Dutch had horse ;)
Then from the usual commonplace he blames
These, and in standing armies' praise declaims ;
And the wise Court, that always loved it dear,
Now thinks all but too little for their fear.
Hyde stamps, and straight upon the ground the swarms
Of current myrmidons appear in arms :
And for their pay he writes as from the King,
With that cursed quill plucked from a vulture's wing,
Of the whole nation now to ask a loan ; [490
The eighteen hundred thousand pounds are gone.
This done, he pens a proclamation stout
In rescue of the bankers banquerout,
494. Bankrupt. See " Nostradamus's Prophecy."
38 ANDRE W MAR VELL.
His minion imps, which in his secret part
Lie nuzzling at the sacramental wart,
Horse-leeches sucking at the hsemorrhoid vein ;
He sucks the King, they him, he them again.
The kingdom's farm he lets to them bid least,
(Greater the bribe) and that 's at interest. 500
Here men induced by safety, gain, and ease,
Their money lodge, confiscate when he please ;
These can at need, at instant with a scrip,
(This liked him best) his cash beyond sea whip.
When Dutch invade, and Parliament prepare,
How can he engines so convenient spare ?
Let no man touch them, or demand his own,
Pain of displeasure of great Clarendon.
The state-affairs thus marshalled, for the rest,
Monck in his shirt against the Dutch is pressed. 510
Often, dear Painter, have I sat and mused
Why he should be on all adventures used ;
Do they for nothing ill, like ashen wood,
Or think him, like herb-john, for nothing good ?
Whether his valour they so much admire,
Or that for cowardice they all retire,
As Heaven in storms they call, in gusts of state
On Monck and Parliament, yet both do hate.
All causes sure concur, but most they think
Under Herculean labours he may sink. 520
Soon then the independent troops would close,
And Hyde's last project of his place dispose.
510. In his shirt, in haste.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 39
Ruyter, the while, that had our ocean curbed,
Sailed now amongst our rivers undisturbed ;
Surveyed their crystal streams and banks so green,
And beauties ere this never naked seen :
Through the vain sedge the bashful nymphs he eyed,
Bosoms, and all which from themselves they hide.
The sun much brighter, and the sky more clear,
He finds, the air and all things sweeter here ; 530
The sudden change, and such a tempting sight,
Swells his old veins with fresh blood, fresh delight ;
Like amorous victors he begins to shave,
And his new face looks in the English wave ;
His sporting navy all about him swim,
And witness their complacence in their trim ;
Their streaming silks play through the weather fair,
And with inveigling colotirs court the air ;
While the red flags breathe on their topmasts high
Terror and war, but want an enemy. 540
Among the shrouds the seamen sit and sing,
And wanton boys on every rope do cling ;
Old Neptune springs the tides, and waters lent
(The gods themselves do help the provident),
And where the deep keel on the shallow cleaves,
With trident's lever and great shoulder heaves ;
./Eolus their sails inspires with eastern wind,
Puffs them along, and breathes upon them kind ;
With pearly shell the Tritons all the while
Sound the sea-march, and guide to Sheppy isle. 550
534. Looks at his new face.
40 ANDREW MARVELL.
So have I seen in April's bud arise
A fleet of clouds sailing along the skies ;
The liquid region with their squadrons filled,
Their airy sterns the sun behind doth gild,
And gentle gales them steer, and Heaven drives,
When all on sudden their calm bosom rives,
With thunder and lightning from each armed cloud ;
Shepherds themselves in vain in bushes shroud :
So up the stream the Belgic navy glides,
And at Sheerness unloads its stormy sides. 560
Spragge there, though practised in the sea-
With panting heart lay like a fish on land,
And quickly judged the fort was not tenable,
Which if a house, yet were not tenantable ;
No man can sit there safe, the cannon pours
Thorough the walls untight, and bullets' showers.
The neighbourhood ill, and an unwholesome seat,
He at the first salute resolves retreat ;
And swore that he would never more dwell there,
Until the city put it in repair ; 570
So he in front, his garrison in rear,
Marched straight to Chatham to increase their fear.
There our sick ships unrigged in summer lay,
Like moulting fowl, a weak and easy prey,
For whose strong bulk earth scarce could timber
The ocean water, or the heavens wind ;
551, Early in April.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 41
Those oaken giants of ancient race,
That ruled all seas, and did our channel grace ;
The conscious stag, though once the forest's dread,
Flies to the wood, and hides his armless head. 580
Ruyter forthwith a squadron does untack ;
They sail securely through the river's track.
An English pilot too (O, shame ! O, sin !)
Cheated of 's pay, was he that showed them in.
Our wretched ships within their fate attend,
And all our hopes now on frail chain depend,
(Engine so slight to guard us from the sea,
It fitter seemed to captivate a flea ;)
A skipper rude shocks it without respect,
Filling his sails more force to re-collect ; 590
Th' English from shore the iron deaf invoke
For its last aid : hold, chain, or we are broke !
But with her sailing weight the Holland keel,
Snapping the brittle links, does thorough reel,
And to the rest the opening passage show.
Monck from the bank that dismal sight does view :
Our feathered gallants, who came down that day
To be spectators safe of the new play,
Leave him alone when first they hear the gun,
(Cornbury the fleetest), and to London run. 600
Our seamen, whom no danger's shape could fright,
Unpaid, refuse to mount their ships for spite ;
On to their fellows swim on board the Dutch,
Who show the tempting metal in their clutch.
581. Untack, detach.
600. Cornbury. See 1. 118, note.
42 ANDRE W MAR VELL.
Oft had he sent, of Duncombe and of Legge,
Cannon and powder, but in vain, to beg ;
And Upnor Castle's ill-deserted wall,
Now needful does for ammunition call.
He finds, where'er he succour might expect,
Confusion, folly, treachery, fear, neglect. 610
But when the Royal Charles (what rage ! what
He saw seized, and could give her no relief ;
That sacred keel that had, as he, restored
Its exiled sovereign on its happy board,
And thence the British Admiral became,
Crowned for that merit with his master's name ;
That pleasure-boat of war, in whose dear side
Secure, so oft he had this foe defied,
Now a cheap spoil, and the mean victor's slave,
Taught the Dutch colours from its top to wave ; 620
Of former glories the reproachful thought,
With present shame compared, his mind distraught.
Such from Euphrates' bank, a tigress fell
After her robbers for her whelps doth yell,
But sees enraged the river flow between,
Frustrate revenge, and love by loss more keen ;
At her own breast her useless claws does arm,
She tears herself, since him she cannot harm.
The guards, placed for the chain's and fleet's
Long since were fled on many a feigned pretence. 630
605. Duncombe. See 1. 107, note.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 43
Daniel had there adventured, man of might ;
Sweet Painter, draw his picture while I write.
Paint him of person tall, and big of bone,
Large limbs like ox, not to be killed but shown.
Scarce can burnt ivory feign a hair so black,
Or face so red thine ochre and thy lac ;
Mix a vain terror in his martial look,
And all those lines by which men are mistook.
But when by shame constrained to go on board,
He heard how the wild cannon nearer roared, 640
And saw himself confined like sheep in pen,
Daniel then thought he was in lion's den.
But when the frightful fire-ships he saw,
Pregnant with sulphur, nearer to him draw,
Captain, Lieutenant, Ensign, all make haste,
Ere in the fiery furnace they be cast ;
Three children tall, unsinged, away they row,
Like Shadrach, Meshech, and Abednego.
Each doleful day still with fresh loss returns,
The Loyal London now a third time burns ; 650
And the true Royal Oak, and Royal James,
Allied in fate, increase with theirs her flames.
Of all our navy none should now survive,
But that the ships themselves were taught to dive,
And the kind river in its creek them hides
Freighting their pierced keels with oozy tides ;
Up to the Bridge contagious terror struck,
The Tower itself with the near danger shook ;
And were not Ruyter's maw with ravage cloyed,
44 ANDREW MARVELL.
Even London's ashes had been then destroyed. 660
Officious fear, however, to prevent
Our loss, does so much more our loss augment.
The Dutch had robbed those jewels of the Crown ;
Our merchant -men, lest they should burn, we drown ;
So when the fire did not enough devour,
The houses were demolished near the Tower.
Those ships that yearly from their teeming hole
Unloaded here the birth of either pole,
Fur from the north, and silver from the west,
From the south perfumes, spices from the east, 670
From Gambo gold, and from the Ganges gems,
Take a short voyage underneath the Thames,
Once a deep river, now with timber floored,
And shrunk, less navigable, to a ford.
Now nothing more at Chatham 's left to burn,
The Holland squadron leisurely return ;
And spite of Rupert's and of Albermarle's,
To Ruyter's triumph led the captive Charles.
The pleasing sight he often does prolong,
Her mast erect, tough cordage, timber strong, 680
Her moving shape, all these he doth survey,
And all admires, but most his easy prey.
The seamen search her all within, without ;
Viewing her strength, they yet their conquest doubt ;
Then with rude shouts, secure, the air they vex,
With gamesome joy insulting on her decks.
667.- Hole, hold.
677. Prince Rupert.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 45
Such the feared Hebrew captive, blinded, shorn,
Was led about in -sport the public scorn.
Black day, accursed ! on thee let no man hail
Out of the port, or dare to hoist a sail, 690
Or row a boat in thy unlucky hour !
Thee, the year's monster, let thy dam devour,
And constant Time, to keep his course yet right,
Fill up thy space with a redoubled night.
When aged Thames was bound with fetters base,
And Medway chaste ravished before his face,
And their dear offspring murdered in their sight,
Thou and thy fellows saw the odious light.
Sad change, since first that happy pair was wed,
With all the rivers graced their nuptial bed ; 700
And father Neptune promised to resign
His empire old to their immortal line ;
Now with vain grief their vainer hopes they rue,
Themselves dishonoured, and the gods untrue ;
And to each other, helpless couple, moan,
As the sad tortoise for the sea does groan :
But most they for their darling Charles complain,
And were it burned, yet less would be their pain.
To see that fatal pledge of sea-command,
Now in the ravisher De Ruyter's hand, 710
The Thames roared, swooning Medway turned her
And were they mortal, both for grief had died.
The Court in fathering yet itself doth please,
(And female Stewart there rules the four seas.)
46 ANDREW MAR VELL.
But fate does still accumulate our woes,
And Richmond her commands, as Ruyter those.
After this loss, to relish discontent,
Some one must be accused by Parliament.
All our miscarriages on Pett must fall,
His name alone seems fit to answer all. 720
Whose counsel first did this mad war beget ?
Who all commands sold through the navy ? Pett.
Who would not follow when the Dutch were beat ?
Who treated out the time at Bergen ? Pett.
Who the Dutch fleet with storms disabled met ?
And, rifling prizes, them neglected ? Pett.
Who with false news prevented the Gazette ?
The fleet divided ? writ for Rupert ? Pett.
Who all our seamen cheated of their debt,
And all our prizes who did swallow ? Pett. 730
Who did advise no navy out to set ?
And who the forts left unprepared ? Pett.
Who to supply with powder did forget
Languard, Sheerness, Gravesend, and Upnor ? Pett.
Who all our ships exposed in Chatham net ?
Who should it be but the fanatic Pett ?
Pett, the sea-architect in making ships,
Was the first cause of all these naval slips ;
Had he not built, none of these faults had been ;
If no creation, there had been no sin ; 740
But his great crime, one boat away he sent,
That lost our fleet and did our flight prevent.
734. Landguard Fort, near Harwich.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 47
Then, that reward might in its turn take place,
And march with punishment in equal pace,
Southampton dead, much of the treasure's care,
And place in council, fell to Duncombe's share.
All men admired he to that pitch could fly :
Powder ne'er blew man up so soon, so high ;
But sure his late good husbandry in petre
Showed him to manage the Exchequer meeter ; 750
And who the forts would not vouchsafe a corn,
To lavish the King's money more would scorn ;
Who hath no chimneys, to give all, is best,
And ablest speaker, who of law hath least ;
Who less estate, for treasurer most fit,
And for a chancellor he that has least wit ;
But the true cause was, that in 's brother May,
The Exchequer might the privy-purse obey.
And now draws near the Parliament's return ;
Hyde and the Court again begin to mourn ; 760
Frequent in council, earnest in debate,
All arts they try how to prolong its date.
Grave Primate Sheldon (much in preaching there)
Blames the last session, and this more does fear :
With Boynton or with Middleton 'twere sweet,
But with a Parliament abhors to meet ;
And thinks 'twill ne'er be well within this nation,
Till it be governed by a Convocation.
But in the Thames' mouth still De Ruyter laid ;
The peace not sure, new army must be paid. 770
753. See 1. 93, and note.
48 ANDREW MARVELL.
Hyde saith he hourly waits for a despatch ;
Harry came post just as he showed his watch.
All do agree the articles were clear,
The Holland fleet and Parliament so near,
Yet Harry must job back and all mature,
Binding, ere the Houses meet, the treaty sure ;
And 'twixt necessity and spite, till then
Let them come up, so to go down again.
Up ambles country justice on his pad,
And vest bespeaks, to be more seemly clad. 780
Plain gentlemen are in stage-coach o'erthrown,
And deputy -lieutenants in their own ;
The portly burgess, through the weather hot,
Does for his corporation sweat and trot ;
And all with sun and choler come adust,
And threaten Hyde to raise a greater dust.
But fresh, as from the mint, the courtiers fine
Salute them, smiling at their vain design ;
And Turner gay up to his perch doth march,
With face new bleached, smoothed, and stiff with
starch ; 790
Tells them he at Whitehall had took a turn,
And for three days thence moves them to adjourn.
Not so, quoth Tomkins, and straight drew his tongue,
Trusty as steel that always ready hung ;
And so proceeding in his motion warm,
Th' army soon raised, he doth as soon disarm.
True Trojan ! whilst this town can girls afford,
775. Henry Coventry.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 49
And long as cider lasts in Hereford,
The girls shall always kiss thee, though grown old,
And in eternal healths thy name be trolled. 800
Meanwhile the certain news of peace arrives
At Court, and so reprieves their guilty lives.
Hyde orders Turner that he should come late,
Lest some new Tomkins spring a fresh debate ;
The King, that early raised was from his rest,
Expects, as at a play, till Turner 's dressed ;
At last, together Eaton came and he,
No dial more could with the sun agree ;
The Speaker, summoned to the Lords, repairs,
Nor gave the Commons leave to say their prayers,
But like his prisoners to the bar them led, [810
Where mute they stand to hear their sentence read :
Trembling with joy and fear, Hyde them prorogues,
And had almost mistook, and called them rogues.
Dear Painter, draw this Speaker to the foot :
Where pencil cannot, there my pen shall do 't ;
That may his body, this his mind explain ;
Paint him in golden gown with mace's train ;
Bright hair, fair face, obscure and dull of head,
Like knife with ivory haft, and edge of lead : 820
At prayers his eyes turn up the pious white,
But all the while his private bill 's in sight :
In chair he smoking sits like master cook,
And a poll-bill does like his apron look.
Well was he skilled to season any question,
And make a sauce fit for Whitehall's digestion,
50 ANDREW MARVELL.
Whence every clay, the palate more to tickle,
Court-mushrooms ready are sent in to pickle.
When grievance urged, he swells like squatted toad,
Frisks like a frog to croak a tax's load : 830
His patient piss he could hold longer than
An urinal, and sit like any hen ;
At table jolly as a country host,
And soaks his sack with Norfolk like a toast ;
At night than chanticleer more brisk and hot,
And sergeant's wife serves him for partelot.
Paint last the King, and a dead shade of night,
Only dispersed by a weak taper's light,
And those bright gleams that dart along and glare
From his clear eyes, (yet these too dart with care ;)
There, as in the calm horror all alone, [840
' He wakes and muses of the uneasy throne,
Raise up a sudden shape with virgin's face,
Though ill agree her posture, hour or place ;
Naked as born, and her round arms behind,
With her own tresses interwove and twined ;
Her mouth locked up, a blind before her eyes,
Yet from beneath her veil her blushes rise ;
And silent tears her secret anguish speak,
Her heart throbs, and with very shame would break.
The object strange in him no terror moved, [850
He wondered first, then pitied, then he loved ;
And with kind hand does the coy vision press,
Whose beauty greater seemed by her distress :
836. Partelot, partlet. See Chaucer's "Nun's priest's tale,"
modernised by Dryden as the ' ' Cock and the Fox.
LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER. 51
But soon shrunk back, chilled with a touch so cold,
And the airy picture vanished from his hold.
In his deep thoughts the wonder did increase,
And he divined 'twas England, or the peace.
Express him startling next, with listening ear,
As one that some unusual noise doth hear ; 860
With cannons, trumpets, drums, his door surround,
But let some other Painter draw the sound.
Thrice he did rise, thrice the vain tumult fled,
But again thunders when he lies in bed.
His mind secure does the vain stroke repeat,
And finds the drums Lewis's march did beat.
Shake then the room, and all his curtains tear,
And with blue streaks infect the taper clear,
While the pale ghost his eyes doth fixed admire
Of grandsire Harry, and of Charles his sire. 870
Harry sits down, and in his open side
The grisly wound reveals of which he died ;
And ghastly Charles, turning his collar low,
The purple thread about his neck does show ;
Then whispering to his son in words unheard,
Through the locked door both of them disappeared.
The wondrous night the pensive King revolves,
And rising straight, on Hyde's disgrace resolves.
At his first step he Castlemaine does find,
Bennet and Coventry as 'twas designed ; 880
And they not knowing, the same thing propose
871. Harry* Henry IV. of France, father of Henrietta
52 ANDREW MARVELL.
Which his hid mind did in its depths inclose.
Through their feigned speech their secret hearts he
To her own husband Castlemaine untrue ;
False to his master Bristol, Arlington ;
And Coventry falser than any one,
Who to the brother, brother would betray ;
Nor therefore trusts himself to such as they.
His father's ghost too whispered him one note,
That who does cut his purse will cut his throat ; 890
But in wise anger he their crimes forbears,
As thieves reprieved from executioners ;
While Hyde, provoked, his foaming tusk does whet,
To prove them traitors, and himself the Pett.
Painter, adieu. How well our arts agree !
Poetic picture, painted poetry !
But this great work is for our monarch fit,
And henceforth Charles only to Charles shall sit ;
His master-hand the ancients shall outdo,
Himself the Painter, and the Poet too. 900
894. Pett.. scapegoat. See 11, 719 seq.
- 53 -
TO THE KING.
So his bold tube man to the sun applied,
And spots unknown in the bright star descried ;
Showed they obscure him, while too near they please,
And seem his courtiers, are but his disease ;
Through optic trunk the planet seemed to hear,
And hurls them off e'er since in his career.
And you, great Sir, that with him empire share,
Sun of our world, as he the Charles is there,
Blame not the Muse that brought those spots to sight,
Which, in your splendour hid, corrode your light ; 10
(Kings in the country oft have gone astray,
Nor of a peasant scorned to learn the way. )
Would she the unattended throne reduce,
Banishing love, trust, ornament, and use ?
Better it were to live in cloister's lock,
Or in fair fields to rule the easy flock :
She blames them only who the Court restrain,
And where all England serves, themselves would
Bold and accursed are they who all this while
Have strove to isle the monarch from this isle, 20
5. Optic trunk, the tube of a telescope. Cf. Milton's
"optic glass " (Paradise Lost, I. 288.)
54 ANDREW MARVELL.
And to improve themselves by false pretence,
About the common prince have raised a fence ;
The kingdom from the crown distinct would see,
And peel the bark to burn at last the tree.
As Ceres corn, and Flora is the spring,
Bacchus is wine, the Country is the King.
Not so does rust insinuating wear,
Nor powder so the vaulted bastion tear,
Nor earthquakes so an hollow isle o'erwhelm,
As scratching courtiers undermine a realm, 30
And through the palace's foundations bore,
Burrowing themselves to hoard their guilty store.
The smallest vermin make the greatest waste,
And a poor warren once a city rased.
But they who born to virtue and to wealth,
Nor guilt to flattery binds, nor want to stealth ;
Whose generous conscience, and whose courage high,
Does with clear counsels their large souls supply ;
Who serve the King with their estates and care,
And as in love on parliaments can stare ; 40
Where few the number, choice is there less hard ;
Give us this Court, and rule without a guard.
CLARENDON'S HOUSE WARMING.
WHEN Clarendon had discerned beforehand
(As the cause can easily foretell the effect)
At once three deluges threatening our land,
'Twas the season, he thought, to turn architect.
Us Mars, and Apollo, and Vulcan consume ;
While he, the betrayer of England and Flanders,
Like the kingfisher chooseth to build in the broom,
And nestles in flames like the salamanders.
But observing that mortals run often behind
(So unreasonable are the rates that they buy at), IO
His omnipotence therefore much rather designed,
How he might create a house with a fiat.
He had read of Rhodope, a lady of Thrace,
Who was digged up so often ere she did marry ;
And wished that his daughter had had as much grace,
To erect him a pyramid out of her quarry.
3. The Dutch War, the Plague, and the Fire of London.
56 ANDREW MARVELL.
But then recollecting how the harper Amphion
Made Thebes dance aloft while he fiddled and sung,
He thought, as an instrument he was most free on,
To build with the Jew's- trump of his own tongue. 20
Yet a precedent fitter in Virgil he found,
Of African Poultney, and Tyrian Dide ;
That he begged for a palace so much of his ground,
As might carry the measure and name of a Hyde.
Thus daily his gouty inventions him pained,
And all for to save the expenses of brickbat ;
That engine so fatal which Denham had brained,
And too much resembled his wife's chocolate.
But while these devices he all doth compare,
None solid enough seemed for his strong castor ; 30
He himself would not dwell in a castle of air,
Though he had built full many a one for his master.
Already he had got all our money and cattle,
To buy us for slaves, and purchase our lands ;
What Joseph by famine, he wrought by sea battle ;
Nay, scarce the priest's portion could 'scape from
22. Dide, Dido.
24. A pun on a hide of land.
30. Castor, beavor.
CLARENDON'S HO USE- W 'ARMING. 57
And henceforth like Pharaoh that Israel pressed
To make mortar and brick, yet allowed 'em no straw,
He cared not though Egypt's ten plagues us distressed,
So he could to build but make policy law. 40
The Scotch forts and Dunkirk, but that they were sold,
He would have demolished to raise up his walls ;
Nay, e'en from Tangier have sent back for the mould,
But that he had nearer the stones of St. Paul's.
His woods would come in at the easier rate,
So long as the yards had a deal or a spar :
His friend in the navy would not be ingrate,
To grudge him some timber, who framed him the
To proceed in the model, he called in his Aliens,
The two Aliens, when jovial, who ply him with
gallons ; 50
The two Aliens who served his blind justice for balance,
The two Aliens who served his injustice for talons.
They approved it thus far, and said it was fine ;
Yet his lordship to finish it would be unable,
Unless all abroad he divulged the design,
For his house then would grow like a vegetable.
58 ANDREW MAR FELL.
His rent would no more in arrear run to Wor'ster ;
He should dwell more noble and cheap too at home,
While into a fabric the presents would muster ;
As by hook and by crook the world clustered of
He liked the advice and then soon it assayed,
And presents crowd headlong to give good example,
So the bribes overlaid her that Rome once betrayed ;
The tribes ne'er contributed so to the Temple.
Straight judges, priests, bishops, true sons of the seal,
Sinners, governors, farmers, bankers, patentees,
Bring in the whole milk of a year at a meal,
As the Cheddar club's dairy to the incorporate cheese.
Bulteale's, Beaken's, Morley's, Wren's fingers with
Were shrivelled, and Clutterbuck's, Eager's, and
Kipps' ; 70
Since the act of oblivion was never such selling,
As at this benevolence out of the snips.
'Twas then that the chimney-contractors he smoked,
Nor would take his beloved canary in kind :
But he swore that the patent should ne'er be revoked,
No, would the whole parliament kiss him behind.
73. Smoked, made to suffer.
CLARENDON'S HOUSE-WARMING. 59
Like Jove under ./Etna o'erwhelming the giant,
For foundation the -Bristol sunk in the earth's
And St. John must now for the leads be compliant,
Or his right hand shall be cut off with a trowel. 80
For surveying the building, 'twas Prat did the feat ;
But for the expense he relied on Worstenholme,
Who sat heretofore at the King's receipt,
But received now and paid the Chancellor's custom.
By subsidies thus both cleric and laic,
And with matter profane cemented with holy ;
He finished at last his palace mosaic,
By a model more excellent than Lesly's folly.
And upon the terrace to consummate all,
A lantern like Faux's surveys the burnt town, 90
And shows on the top by the regal gilt ball,
Where you are to expect the sceptre and crown.
Fond city, its rubbish and ruins that builds,
Like vain chemists, a flower from its ashes returning,
Your metropolis house is in St. James's fields,
And till there you remove, you shall never leave
60 ANDREW MARVBLL.
This temple of war and of peace is the shrine,
Where this idol of state sits adored and accursed ;
To handsel his altar and nostrils divine,
Great Buckingham's sacrifice must be the first. 100
Now some (as all builders must censure abide)
Throw dust in its front and blame situation :
And others as much reprehend his back -side,
As too narrow by far for his expatiation ;
But do not consider how in process of times,
That for namesake he may with Hyde Park it
And with what convenience he soon, for his crimes,
At Tyburn may land and spare the Tower barge.
Or rather how wisely his stall was built near,
Lest with driving too far his tallow impair ; 1 10
When, like the good ox, for public good cheer,
He comes to be roasted next St. James's fair.
ioo. See the " Last Instructions to a Painter," 1. 357, note.
103. Back-side, back garden.
UPON HIS HOUSE.
HERE lie the sacred bones
Of Paul beguiled of his stones :
Here lie golden briberies,
The price of ruined families ;
The cavalier's debenture wall,
Fixed on an eccentric basis ;
Here's Dunkirk Town and Tangier Hall,
The Queen's marriage and all,
The Dutchman's templum pads.
62 ANDREW MARVELL.
EPIGRAM UPON HIS GRANDCHILDREN.
KENDAL is dead, and Cambridge riding post ;
What fitter sacrifice for Denham's ghost ?
-6 3 -
FARTHER INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER.
PAINTER, once more thy pencil reassume,
And draw me, in one scene, London and Rome :
Here holy Charles, there good Aurelius sat,
Weeping to see their sons degenerate ;
His Romans taking up the teemer's trade,
The Britons jigging it in masquerade ;
Whilst the brave youths, tired with the toil of state,
Their weary minds and limbs to recreate,
Do to their more beloved delights repair,
One to his whore, the other to his player. 10
Then change the scene, and let the next present
A landscape of our motley Parliament ;
And place, hard by the bar, on the left hand,
Circean Clifford with his charming wand ;
Our pig-eyed on his fashion,
Set by the worst attorney of our nation,
This great triumvirate that can divide
The spoils of England ; and along that side
Place FalstafFs regiment of threadbare coats,
All looking this way, how to give their votes ; 20
And of his dear reward let none despair,
For money comes when Seymour leaves the chair.
Change once again, and let the next afford
3. Charles I.
64 ANDREW MARVELL.
The figure of a motley council-board
At Arlington's, and round about it set
Our mighty masters in a warm debate.
Full bowls of lusty wine make them repeat,
To make the other council-board forget
That while the King of France with powerful arms
Gives all his fearful neighbours strange alarms, 30
We in our glorious bacchanals dispose
The humbled fate of a plebeian nose ;
Which to effect, when thus it was decreed,
Draw me a champion mounted on a steed ;
And after him a brave brigade of horse,
Armed at all points, ready to re-enforce
Him, in's assault upon a single man.
* * * *
'Tis this must make O'Bryan great in story,
And add more beams to Sandy's former glory.
Draw our Olympia next, in council set 40
With Cupid, S[eymou]r, and the tool of state :
Two of the first recanters of the house,
That aim at mountains, and bring forth a mouse ;
Who make it, by their mean retreat, appear
Five members need not be demanded here.
These must assist her in her countermines,
To overthrow the Derby House designs ;
Whilst Positive walks, like woodcock in the park,
Contriving projects with a brewer's clerk ;
Thus all employ themselves, and, without pity, 50
Leave Temple singly to be beat in the city.
ON BLOOD'S STEALING THE CROWN.
WHEN daring Blood, his rent to have regained,
Upon the English diadem distrained,
He chose the cassock, surcingle, and gown,
The fittest mask for one that robs the crown :
But his lay-pity underneath prevailed,
And whilst he saved the keeper's life he failed ;
With the priest's vestment had he but put on
The prelate's cruelty, the crown had gone.
66 ANDRE W MAR VELL.
A POEM ON THE STATUE IN
As cities that to the fierce conqueror yield
Do at their own charges their citadels build ;
So Sir Robert advanced the King's statue, in token
Of bankers defeated, and Lombard Street broken.
Some thought it a knightly and generous deed,
Obliging the city with a King and a steed ;
When with honour he might from his word have gone
He that rows for a calm is absolved by a wreck.
But now it appears, from the first to the last,
To be all a revenge, and a malice forecast ; 10
Upon the King's birthday to set up a thing
That shows him a monkey more like than a King.
When each one that passes finds fault with the horse,
Yet all do affirm that the King is much worse ;
And some by the likeness Sir Robert suspect
That he did for the King his own statue erect.
THE STATUE IN STOCKS-MARKET. 67
Thus to see him disfigured the herb-women chide,
Who up on their panniers more gracefully ride ;
And so loose in his seat that all persons agree,
E'en Sir William Peake sits much firmer than he. 20
But a market, as some say, doth fit the King well,
Who the Parliament too and revenue doth sell ;
And others, to make the similitude hold,
Say his Majesty too is oft purchased and sold.
This statue is surely more scandalous far
Than all the Dutch pictures which caused the war ;
And what the Exchequer for that took on trust
May we henceforth confiscate, for reasons more just.
But Sir Robert, to take all the scandal away,
Does the error upon the artificer lay ; 30
And alleges the workmanship was not his own,
For he counterfeits only in gold, not in stone.
But, Sir Knight of the Vine, how came 't in you
That when to the scaffold your liege you had brought,
With canvas and deals you e'er since do him cloud,
As if you had meant it his coffin and shroud ?
68 ANDREW MARVELL.
Hath Blood [stole] him away, as his crown he conveyed?
Or is he to Clayton's gone in masquerade ?
Or is he in cabal in his cabinet set ?
Or have you to the Compter removed him for debt? 40
Methinks by the equipage of this vile scene,
That to change him into a jack-pudding you mean ;
Or why thus expose him to popular flouts,
As if we'd as good have a King made of clouts ?
Or do you his faults out of modesty veil
With three shattered planks, and the rag of a sail ;
To express how his navy was shattered and torn,
The day that he was both restored and born ?
Sure the King will ne'er think of repaying his bankers,
When loyalty now all expires with his spankers ; 50
If the Indies and Smyrna do not him enrich,
He will hardly have left a poor rag to his breech.
But Sir Robert affirms that we do him much wrong ;
'Tis the 'graver at work, to reform him, so long ;
But, alas ! he will never arrive at his end,
For it is such a King as no chisel can mend.
40, The Compter was a prison for debt.
THE STATUE IN STOCKS- MARKET. 69
But with all his errors restore us our King,
If ever you hope in December for Spring ;
For though all the world cannot show such another,
Yet we'd rather have him than his bigoted brother. 60
70 ANDREW MARVELL.
AN HISTORICAL POEM.
OF a tall stature, and of sable hue,
Much like the son of Kish, that lofty Jew,
Twelve years complete he suffered in exile,
And kept his father's asses all the while ;
At length, by wonderful impulse of fate,
The people call him home to help the state,
And, what is more, they send him money too,
And clothe him all, from head to foot, anew.
Nor did he such small favours then disdain,
Who in his thirtieth year began his reign : 10
In a slashed doublet then he came ashore,
And dubbed poor Palmer's wife his royal whore.
Bishops, and deans, peers, pimps, and knights, he
Things highly fitting for a monarch's trade !
With women, wine, and viands of delight,
His jolly vassals feast him day and night.
But the best times have ever some allay,
His younger brother died by treachery.
i. Charles II.
4. Asses, his father's councillors Hyde, &c.
12. The future Duchess of Cleveland.
AN HISTORICAL POEM. 71
Bold James survives, no dangers make him flinch ;
He marries Signer Falmouth's pregnant wench. 20
The pious mother queen, hearing her son
Was thus enamoured with a buttered bun,
And that the fleet was gone, in pomp and state,
To fetch, for Charles, the flowery Lisbon Kate,
She chants Te Deum, and so comes away,
To wish her hopeful issue timely joy.
Her most uxorious mate she ruled of old,
Why not with easy youngsters make as bold ?
From the French Court she haughty topics brings,
Deludes their pliant nature with vain things ; 30
Her mischief-breeding breast did so prevail,
The new -got Flemish town was set to sale ;
For these, and Jermyn's sins, she founds a church,
So slips away, and leaves us in the lurch.
Now the Court-sins did every place defile,
And plagues and war fall heavy on the isle ;
Pride nourished folly, folly a delight
With the Batavian Commonwealth to fight ;
But the Dutch fleet fled suddenly with fear,
Death and the Duke so dreadful did appear. 40
The dreadful victor took his soft repose,
Scorning pursuit of such mechanic foes.
But now York's genitals grew over hot,
With Denham's and Carnegie's infected plot,
21. Henrietta Maria.
24. Queen Katherine.
32. Dunkirk was sold to the French in 1662.
72 ANDREW MAR FELL.
Which, with religion, so inflamed his ire,
He left the city when 'twas got on fire.
So PhLip's son, inflamed with a miss,
Burned down the palace of Persepolis.
Foiled thus by Venus, he Bellona woos,
And with the Dutch a second war renews ; 50
But here his French-bred prowess proved in vain,
De Ruyter claps him in Solebay again.
This isle was well reformed, and gained renown,
Whilst the brave Tudors wore the imperial crown :
But since the royal race of Stuarts came,
It has recoiled to Popery and shame ;
Misguided monarchs, rarely wise or just,
Tainted with pride, and with impetuous lust.
Should we the Blackheath project here relate,
Or count the various blemishes of state, 60
My muse would on the reader's patience grate.
The poor Priapus King, led by the nose,
Looks as a thing set up to scare the crows ;
Yet, in the mimics of the spintrian sport,
Outdoes Tiberius, and his goatish Court.
In love's delights none did them e'er excel,
Not Tereus with his sister Philomel ;
As they at Athens, we at Dover meet,
And gentlier far the Orleans Duchess treat.
What sad event attended on the same 70
We '11 leave to the report of common fame.
The senate, which should headstrong princes stay,
Let loose the reins, and give the realm away
AN HISTORICAL POEM. 73
With lavish hands they constant tributes give,
And annual stipends for their guilt receive ;
Corrupt with gold, they wives and daughters bring
To the black idol for an offering.
All but religious cheats might justly swear,
He true vicegerent to old Moloch were.
Priests were the first deluders of mankind, 80
Who with vain faith made all their reason blind ;
Not Lucifer himself more proud than they,
And yet persuade the world they must obey ;
'Gainst avarice and luxury complain,
And practise all the vices they arraign.
Riches and honour they from laymen reap,
And with dull crambo feed the silly sheep.
As Killigrew buffoons his master, they
Droll on their god, but a much duller way.
With hocus-pocus, and their heavenly sleight, 90
They gain on tender consciences at night.
Whoever has an over-zealous wife
Becomes the priest's Amphitryo during life.
W T ho would such men Heaven's messengers believe,
Who from the sacred pulpit dare deceive ?
Baal's wretched curates legerdemained it so,
And never durst their tricks above-board show.
When our first parents Paradise did grace,
The serpent was the prelate of the place ;
Fond Eve did, for this subtle tempter's sake, 100
From the forbidden tree the pippin take ;
93. A ntphitryo, host, from Moliere's play.
74 ANDREW MARVELL.
His God and Lord this preacher did betray,
To have the weaker vessel made his prey.
Since death and sin did human nature blot,
The chiefest blessings Adam's chaplain got.
Thrice wretched they, who nature's laws detest,
To trace the ways fantastic of a priest,
Till native reason 's basely forced to yield,
And hosts of upstart errors gain the field.
My muse presumed a little to digress, IIO
And touch their holy function with my verse.
Now to the state again she tends direct,
And does on giant Lauderdale reflect.
This haughty monster, with his ugly claws,
First tempered poison to destroy our laws ;
Declares the council's edicts are beyond
The most authentic statutes of the land ;
Sets up in Scotland cl la mode de France ;
Taxes, excise, and armies does advance.
This Saracen his country's freedom broke, I2O
To bring upon their necks the heavier yoke ;
This is the savage pimp, without dispute,
First brought his mother for a prostitute ;
Of all the miscreants e'er went to hell,
This villain rampant bears away the bell.
Now must my muse deplore the nation's fate,
Like a true lover for her dying mate.
The royal evil so malignant grows,
Nothing the dire contagion can oppose.
In our weal-public scarce one thing succeeds, 130
AN HISTORICAL POEM. 75
For one man's weakness a whole nation bleeds ;
Ill-luck starts up, and thrives like evil weeds.
Let Cromwell's ghost smile with contempt, to see
Old England struggling under slavery.
His meagre Highness, now he's got astride,
Does on Britannia, as on Churchill, ride.
White-livered P [calls] for his swift jackall
To hunt down 's prey, and hopes to master all.
Clifford and Hyde before had lost the day ;
One hanged himself, and t' other ran away. 140
'T was want of wit and courage made them fail,
But O[sbor]ne, and the Duke, must needs prevail.
The Duke now vaunts with Popish myrmidons ;
Our fleets, our ports, our cities and our towns,
Are manned by him, or by his Holiness ;
Bold Irish ruffians to his Court address.
This is the colony to plant his knaves,
From hence he picks and culls his murdering braves.
Here for an ensign, or lieutenant's place,
They '11 kill a judge or justice of the peace. 150
At his command Mac will do any thing :
He '11 burn a city, or destroy a King.
From Tiber came the advice-boat monthly home,
And brought new lessons to the Duke from Rome.
Here, with cursed precepts, and with counsels dire,
The godly cheat-king (would be) did aspire ;
Heaven had him chieftain of Great Britain made,
Tells him the holy church demands his aid ;
Bade him be bold, all dangers to defy,
76 ANDREW MARVELL.
His brother, sneaking heretic, should die* 160
A priest should do it, from whose sacred stroke
All England straight should fall beneath his yoke ;
God did renounce him, and his cause disown,
And in his stead had placed him on his throne.
From Saul the land of promise thus was rent,
And Jesse's son placed in the government.
The Holy Scripture vindicates his cause,
And monarchs are above all human laws.
Thus said the Scarlet Whore to her gallant,
Who straight designed his brother to supplant : 170
Fiends of ambition here his soul possessed,
And thirst of empire calentured his breast.
Hence ruin and destruction had ensued,
And all the people been in blood imbrued,
Had not Almighty Providence drawn near,
And stopped his malice in his full career.
Be wise, ye sons of men, tempt God no more
To give you kings in 's wrath to vex you sore :
If a King's brother can such mischiefs bring,
Then how much greater mischiefs such a King. 180
172. Calentvred, fevered.
ADVICE TO A PAINTER.
SPREAD a large canvas, Painter, to contain
The great assembly and the numerous train,
Who all about him shall in council sit,
Abjuring wisdom, and despising wit ;
Hating all justice, and resolved to fight,
To rob his native country of its right.
First draw his Highness prostrate to the south,
Adoring Rome, this label in his mouth,
" Most holy Father ! being joined in league
With Father Patrick, Darby, and with Teague, 10
Thrown at your sacred feet, I humbly bow,
I, and the wise associates of my vow,
A vow nor fire nor sword shall ever end,
Till all this nation to your footstool bend.
Thus armed with zeal and blessings from your hands,
I '11 raise my Irish and my Popish bands,
And by a noble well-contrived plot,
Managed by wise Fitz-Gerrard, and by Scott,
Prove to the world I '11 have Old England know
That common sense is my eternal foe. 2O
I ne'er can fight in a more glorious cause,
Than to destroy their liberties and laws,
7. The Duke of York.
7 8 ANDREW MARVELL.
Their House of Commons, and their House of Lords.
Their parchment precedents, and dull records ;
Shall these e'er dare to contradict my will,
And think a prince of the blood can e'er do ill ?
It is our birthright to have power to kill.
Shall these men dare to think, shall these decide
The way to heaven, and who shall be my guide ?
Shall these pretend to say that bread is bread, 30
[If we affirm it is a God indeed ?]
Or there's no Purgatory for the dead ?
That extreme unction is but common oil ?
And not infallible the Roman soil ?
I '11 have these villains in our notions rest ;
You and I say it, therefore it's the best."
Next, Painter, draw his Mordaunt by his side,
Conveying his religion and his bride :
He, who long since abjured the royal line,
Does now in Popery with his master join. 40
Then draw the princess with her golden locks,
Hastening to be envenomed with the p ,
And in her youthful veins receive a wound,
Which sent N H before her under ground ;
The wound of which the tainted C fades,
Preserved in store for the next set of maids.
Poor princess, born under some sullen star,
To find this welcome when you came so far !
Better some jealous neighbour of your own
44. Nan Hyde, the Duke's first wife, who died on March
ADVICE TO A PAINTER. 79
Had called you to some sound, though petty throne ;
Where, 'twixt a wholesome husband and a page, [50
You might have lingered out a lazy age,
Than on dull hopes of being here a Queen,
Die before twenty, rot before fifteen.
Now, Painter, show us in the blackest dye,
The counsellors of all this villany.
Clifford, who first appeared in humble guise,
Was thought so meek, so modest, and so wise ;
But when he came to act upon the stage,
He proved the mad Cethegus of our age. 60
He and the Duke had each too great a mind
To be by justice or by law confined :
Their boiling heads can hear no other sounds,
Than fleets and armies, battles, blood, and wounds :
And to destroy our liberty they hope,
By Irish fools, and an old doting Pope.
[Next, Talbot must by his great master stand,
Laden with folly, flesh, and ill-got land ;
He 's of a size indeed to fill a porch,
But ne'er can make a pillar of the church. 70
His sword is all his argument, not his book ;
Although no scholar, he can act the cook,
And will cut throats again, if he be paid ;
In the Irish shambles he first learned the trade.]
Then, Painter, show thy skill, and in fit place
Let 's see the nuncio Arundel's sweet face ;
Let the beholders by thy art espy
His sense and soul, as squinting as his eye.
8o ANDREW MARVELL.
Let Bellasis' autumnal face be seen,
Rich with the spoils of a poor Algerine, 80
Who, trusting in him, was by him betrayed ;
And so should we, were his advice obeyed.
The hero once got honour by the sword ;
He got his wealth by breaking of his word ;
He now hath got his daughter great with child,
And pimps to have his family defiled.
Next, Painter, draw the rabble of the plot ;
Jermyn, Fitz-Gerald, Loftus, Porter, Scott :
These are fit heads indeed to turn a state,
And change the order of a nation's fate ; 90
Ten thousand such as these can ne'er control
The smallest atom of an English soul.
Old England on its strong foundation stands,
Defying all their heads and all their hands ;
Its steady basis never could be shook,
When wiser heads its ruin undertook ;
And can her guardian angel let her stoop
At last to fools, to madmen, and the Pope ?
No, Painter, no ! close up thy piece, and see
This crowd of traitors hang in effigy. 100
TO THE KING.
GREAT Charles, who full of mercy might'st command
In peace and pleasure this thy native land,
At last take pity on thy tottering throne,
Shook by the faults of others, not thy own ;
Let not thy life and crown together end,
Destroyed by a false brother, and false friend.
Observe the danger that appears so near,
And all your subjects do each minute fear :
A drop of poison, or a Popish knife,
Ends all the joys of England with your life. 10
Brothers, 'tis true, should be by nature kind ;
But to a zealous and ambitious mind,
Bribed by a crown on earth, and one above,
There's no more friendship, tenderness, or love.
See in all ages what examples are
Of monarchs murdered by the impatient heir.
Hard fate of princes, who will ne'er believe,
Till the stroke's struck which they can ne'er retrieve !
82 ANDREW MARVELL.
BRITANNIA AND RALEIGH.
Britannia. AH ! Raleigh, when thou didst thy breath
To trembling James, would I had quitted mine.
Cubs didst thou call them? Hadst thou seen this
Of earls, and dukes, and princes of the blood,
No more of Scottish race thou -would'st complain,
These would be blessings in this spurious reign.
Awake, arise from thy long blest repose,
Once more with me partake of mortal woes !
Raleigh. What mighty power has forced me from my
Oh ! mighty queen, why so untimely dressed ? 10
Britannia. Favoured by night, concealed in this
Whilst the lewd Court in drunken slumber lies,
I stole away, and never will return,
Till England knows who did her city burn ;
Till cavaliers shall favourites be deemed,
And loyal sufferers by the Court esteemed ;
9. James I.
BRITANNIA AND RALEIGH. 83
Till Lee and Galloway shall bribes reject ;
Thus Osborne's golden cheat I shall detect :
Till atheist Lauderdale shall leave this land,
And Commons' votes shall cut-nose guards disband : 20
Till Kate a happy mother shall become,
Till Charles loves Parliaments, and James hates Rome.
Raleigh. What fatal crimes make you for ever fly
Your once loved Court, and martyr's progeny ?
Britannia. A colony of French possess the Court ;
Pimps, priests, buffoons, in privy-chamber sport.
Such slimy monsters ne'er approached a throne
Since Pharaoh's days, nor so defiled a crown.
In sacred ear tyrannic arts they croak,
Pervert his mind, and good intentions choke ; 30
Tell him of golden Indies, fairy lands,
Leviathan, and absolute commands.
Thus, fairy-like, the King they steal away,
And in his room a changeling Lewis lay.
How oft have I him to himself restored,
In 's left the scale, in 's right hand placed the sword ?
Taught him their use, what dangers would ensue
To them who strive to separate these two ?
The bloody Scottish chronicle read o'er,
Showed him how many kings, in purple gore, 40
Were hurled to hell, by learning tyrant's lore ?
21. Charles II. 's Queen, who was childless.
22. James, Duke of York.
34. Lewis XIV. But, Marvel says, Charles would never be
more than a weak substitute for a despot.
84 ANDREW MARVELL.
The other day famed Spenser I did bring,
In lofty notes Tudor's blest race to sing ;
How Spain's proud powers her virgin arms controlled,
And golden days in peaceful order rolled ;
How like ripe fruit she dropped from off her throne,
Full of gray hairs, good deeds, and great renown.
As the Jessean hero did appease
Saul's stormy rage, and stopped his black disease,
So the learned bard, with artful song, suppressed 50
The swelling passion of his cankered breast,
And in his heart kind influences shed
Of country's love, by truth and justice bred.
Then to perform the cure so well begun,
To him I showed this glorious setting sun ;
How, by her people's looks pursued from far,
She mounted on a bright celestial car,
Outshining Virgo, or the Julian star.
Whilst in Truth's mirror this good scene he spied,
Entered a dame, bedecked with spotted pride, 60
Fair flower-de-luce within an azure field ;
Her left hand bears the ancient Gallic shield,
By her usurped ; her right a bloody sword,
Inscribed Leviathan, our sovereign Lord ;
Her towery front a fiery meteor bears,
An exhalation bred of blood and tears ;
Around her Jove's lewd ravenous curs complain,
Pale Death, Lust, tortures, fill her pompous train ;
She from the easy King Truth's mirror took,
'BRITANNIA AND RALEIGH. 85
And on the ground in spiteful rage it broke ; 70
Then frowning thus, with proud disdain she spoke :
" Are thread-bare virtues ornaments for kings ?
Such poor pedantic toys teach underlings.
Do monarchs rise by virtue, or by sword ?
Whoe'er grew great by keeping of his word ?
Virtue 's a faint green-sickness to brave souls,
Dastards their hearts, their active heat controls.
The rival gods, monarchs of t' other world,
This mortal poison among princes hurled,
Fearing the mighty projects of the great 80
Should drive them from their proud celestial seat,
If not o'erawed by this new holy cheat.
Those pious frauds, too slight to ensnare the brave,
Are proper arts the long-eared rout to enslave.
Bribe hungry priests to deify your might,
To teach your will 's your only rule to right,
And sound damnation to all dare deny 't.
Thus Heaven's designs 'gainst Heaven you shall turn,
And make them fear those powers they once did scorn.
When all the gobbling interest of mankind, 90
By hirelings sold to you, shall be resigned.,
And by impostures, God and man betrayed,
The church and state you safely may invade ;
So boundless Lewis in full glory shines,
Whilst your starved power in legal fetters pines.
Shake off those baby-bands from your strong arms,
Henceforth be deaf to that old witch's charms ;
Taste the delicious sweets of sovereign power,
86 ANDREW MARVELL.
'Tis royal game whole kingdoms to deflower.
Three spotless virgins to your bed I'll bring, 100
A sacrifice to you, their God and king.
As these grow stale, we'll harass human kind,
Rack nature, till new pleasures you shall find,
Strong as your reign, and beauteous as your mind."
When she had spoke, a confused murmur rose,
Of French, Scotch. Irish, all my mortal foes ;
Some English too, O shame ! disguised I spied,
Led all by the wise son-in-law of Hyde.
With fury drunk, like bacchanals, they roar,
Down with that common Magna Charta whore ! no
With joint consent on helpless me they flew,
And from my Charles to a base gaol me drew ;
My reverend age exposed to scorn and shame,
To prigs, bawds, whores, was made the public game.
Frequent addresses to my Charles I send,
And my sad state did to his care commend ;
But his fair soul, transformed by that French dame,
Had lost all sense of honour, justice, fame.
Like a tame spinster in's seraigle he sits,
Besieged by whores, buffoons, and bastard chits ; 1 20
Lulled in security, rolling in lust,
Resigns his crown to angel Carwell's trust ;
Her creature O[sbor]ne the revenue steals ;
False Finch, knave Anglesey misguide the seals.
Mac-James the Irish pagods does adore,
ioS. The Duke of York.
125. The Duke of York, so named because of his alliance
with the Irish.
BRITANNIA AND RALEIGH. 87
His French and Teagues command on sea and shore.
The Scotch-scalado of our Court two isles,
False Lauderdale, with ordure, all defiles.
Thus the state 's nightmared by this hellish rout,
And no one left these furies to cast out. 130
Ah ! Vindex come, and purge the poisoned state ;
Descend, descend, ere the cure's desperate.
Raleigh. Once more, great queen, thy darling strive
Snatch him again from scandal and the grave ;
Present to 's thoughts his long-scorned Parliament,
The basis of his throne and government.
In his deaf ears sound his dead father's name ;
Perhaps that spell may 's erring soul reclaim :
Who knows what good effects from thence may spring ?
'Tis godlike good to save a falling king. 140
Britannia. Raleigh, no more, for long in vain I've
The Stuart from the tyrant to divide ;
As easily learned virtuosos may
With the dog's blood his gentle kind convey
Into the wolf, and make him guardian turn
To the bleating flock, by him so lately torn :
If this imperial juice once taint his blood,
'Tis by no potent antidote withstood.
Tyrants, like leprous kings, for public weal
Should be immured, lest the contagion steal 150
irf.Teague, the Irish.
88 ANDREW MARVELL.
Over the whole. The elect of the Jessean line
To this firm law their sceptre did resign ;
And shall this base tyrannic brood invade
Eternal laws, by God for mankind made ?
To the serene Venetian state I'll go,
From her sage mouth famed principles to know ;
With her the prudence of the ancients read,
To teach my people in their steps to tread ;
By their great pattern such a state I'll frame,
Shall eternize a glorious lasting name. 160
Till then, my Raleigh, teach our noble youth
To love sobriety, and holy truth ;
Watch and preside over their tender age,
Lest Court corruption should their souls engage ;
Teach them how arts, and arms, in thy young days,
Employed our youth, not taverns, stews, and plays ;
Tell them the generous scorn their race does owe
To flattery, pimping, and a gaudy show ;
Teach them to scorn the Carwells, Portsmouths,
The Clevelands, O[sbor]nes, Berties, Lauderdales : 170
Poppaea, Tigelline, and Asteria's name,
All yield to these in lewdness, lust, and fame.
Make them admire the Talbots, Sydneys, Veres,
Drake, Cavendish, Blake, men void of slavish fears,
True sons of glory, pillars of the state,
On whose famed deeds all tongues and writers wait.
169. Madame "Carwell" is the same as the Duchess of
Portsmouth. " Nell " is Nell Gwyn.
BRITANNIA AND RALEIGH. 89
When with fierce ardour their bright souls do burn,
Back to my dearest country I'll return.
Tarquin's just judge, and Caesar's equal peers,
With them I'll bring to dry my people's tears ; 180
Publicola with healing hands shall pour
Balm in their wounds, and shall their life restore ;
Greek arts, and Roman arms, in her conjoined,
Shall England raise, relieve oppressed mankind.
As Jove's great son the infested globe did free
From noxious monsters, hell-born tyranny,
So shall my England, in a holy war,
In triumph lead chained tyrants from afar ;
Her true Crusado shall at last pull down
The Turkish crescent and the Persian sun. 190
Freed by thy labours, fortunate, blest isle,
The earth shall rest, the Heaven shall on thee smile ;
And this kind secret for reward shall give,
No poisonous serpent on the earth shall live.
90 ANDREW MARVELL.
ON THE LORD MAYOR AND COURT OF
PRESENTING THE KING AND DUKE OF YORK EACH
WITH A COPY OF HIS FREEDOM, ANNO DOM. 1674.
THE Londoners gent
To the King do present,
In a box, the City maggot ;
'Tis a thing full of weight,
That requires all the might
Of the whole Guildhall team to drag it.
Whilst their churches unbuilt,
And their houses undwelt,
And their orphans want bread to feed 'em ;
Themselves they've bereft 10
Of the little wealth they had left,
To make an offering of the freedom.
'ON THE LORD MAYOR. 91
O ye addle-brained cits !
Who, henceforth, in their wits,
Would entrust their youth to your heeding ?
When in diamonds and gold
You have him thus enrolled,
Ye know both his friends and his breeding !
Beyond the sea he began
Where such a riot he ran, 20
That every one there did leave him ;
And now he's come o'er
Ten times worse than before,
When none but such fools would receive him.
He ne'er knew, not he,
How to serve or be free,
Though he has passed through so many adventures ;
But e'er since he was bound,
(That is, he was crowned)
He has every day broke his indentures. 30
He spends all his days
In running to plays,
When he ought in his shop to be poring ;
And he wastes all his nights
In his constant delights,
Of revelling, drinking, and whoring.
92 ANDREW MARVELL.
Throughout Lombard Street,
Each man did he meet,
He would run on the score with and borrow ;
When they asked for their own, 40
He was broke and was gone,
And his creditors all left to sorrow.
Though oft bound to the peace,
Yet he never would cease
To vex his poor neighbours with quarrels ;
And when he was beat,
He still made his retreat
To his Clevelands, his Nells, and his Carwells.
Nay, his company lewd
Were twice grown so rude, 50
That had not fear taught him sobriety,
And the house being well barred,
With guard upon guard,
They'd robbed us of all our propriety.
Such a plot was laid,
Had not Ashley betrayed,
As had cancelled all former disasters ;
And your. wives had been strumpets
To his highness's trumpets,
And footboys had all been your masters. 60
ON THE LORD MAYOR. 93
So many are the debts,
And the bastards he gets,
Which must all be defrayed by London ;
That notwithstanding the care
Of Sir Thomas Player,
The chamber must needs be undone.
His words nor his oath
Cannot bind him to troth,
And he values not credit or history ;
And though he has served through 70
Two 'prenticeships now,
He knows not his trade nor his mystery.
Then, London, rejoice
In thy fortunate choice,
To have him made free of thy spices ;
And do not mistrust,
He may once grow more just,
When he 's worn off his follies and vices.
And what little thing
Is that which you bring 80
To the Duke, the kingdom's darling ?
Ye hug it, and draw
Like ants at a straw,
Though too small for the gristle of starling.
71. f.e., fourteen years, from 1660 to 1674.
94 ANDREW MARVELL.
Is it a box of pills
To cure the Duke's ills ?
He is too far gone to begin it !
Or does your fine show
In processioning go,
With the pyx and the host within it ? 90
The very first head
Of the oath you him read,
Show you all how fit he 's to govern,
When in heart, you all knew,
He ne'er was, nor will be, true
To his country or to his sovereign.
And who, pray, could swear
That he would forbear
To cull out the good of an alien,
Who still doth advance ioo
The government of France
With a wife and religion Italian ?
And now, worshipful sirs,
Go, fold up your furs,
And Viners turn again, turn again ;
I see (wlwe'er 's freed,)
You for slaves are decreed,
Until you burn again, burn again.
FOR faults and follies London's doom shall fix ;
And she must sink in flames in sixty-six.
Fire-balls shall fly, but few shall see the train,
As far as from Whitehall to Pudding Lane,
To burn the city, which again shall rise,
Beyond all hopes, aspiring to the skies,
Where vengeance dwells. But there is one thing more,
Though its walls stand, shall bring the city lower :
When legislators shall their trust betray,
Saving their own, shall give the rest away ; 10
And those false men, by the easy people sent,
Give taxes to the King by Parliament ;
When barefaced villains shall not blush to cheat,
And chequer-doors shall shut up Lombard Street ;
When players come to act the part of queens,
Within the curtains, and behind the scenes ;
When sodomy shall be prime minister's sport,
And whoring shall be the least crime at Court ;
When boys shall take their sisters for their mate,
And practise incest between seven and eight ; 20
14. The closing of the Exchequer, 1672.
17. The allusion is probably to the Duke of Buckingham.
96 ANDREW MARVELL.
When no man knows in whom to put his trust,
And e'en to rob the chequer shall be just ;
When declarations, lies, and every oath,
Shall be in use at Court, but faith and troth ;
When two good kings shall be at Brentford town,
And when in London there shall not be one ;
When the seal 's given to a talking fool,
Whom wise men laugh at, and whom women rule,
A minister able only in his tongue,
To make harsh empty speeches two hours long ; 30
When an old Scotch covenanter shall be
The champion for the English hierarchy ;
When bishops shall lay all religion by,
And strive by law to establish tyranny ;
When a lean treasurer shall in one year
Make himself fat, his King and people bare ;
When the English prince shall Englishmen despise,
And think French only loyal, Irish wise ;
When wooden shoon shall be the English wear,
And Magna Charta shall no more appear ; 40
Then the English shall a greater tyrant know,
Than either Greek or Latin story show ;
27. "Saal" is here substituted for "seat," the reading of
27. The "talking fool" is perhaps Sir Heneage Finch.
31. Lauderdale, whose impeachment was much discussed in
35. Lord Clifford, appointed Lord Treasurer in 1672, resigned
upon the passing of the Test Act in 1673.
NOSTRADMUS PROPHECY. 97
Their wives to 's lust exposed, their wealth to 's spoil,
With groans, to fill his treasury, they toil ;
But like the Bellides must sigh in vain,
For that still filled flows out as fast again ;
Then they with envious eyes shall Belgium see,
And wish in vain Venetian liberty.
The frogs too late, grown weary of their pain,
Shall pray to Jove to take him back again. 50
45. They who filled sieves with water.
98 ANDREW MARVELL.
THE STATUE AT CHARING CROSS.
WHAT can be the mystery ? why Charing Cross
This five months continues still muffled with board ;
Dear Wheeler, impart, we are all at a loss,
Unless we must have Punchinello restored.
'T were to Scaramouchio too great disrepect
To limit his troop to this theatre small ;
Besides the injustice it were to eject
That mimic, so legally seized of Whitehall.
For a dial the place is too insecure,
Since the Privy Garden could not it defend ; 10
And so near to the Court they will never endure
Any monument, how they their time may misspend.
Were these deals yet in store for sheathing our fleet,
When the King in armada to Portsmouth should
On the Bishops and Treasurer, did they agree 't
To repair with such riff-raff our church's old pale ?
THE STATUE AT CHARING CROSS. 99
No ; to comfort the heart of the poor cavalier,
The late King on horseback is here to be shown ;
What ado with your Kings and your statues is here !
Have we not had enough, pray, already of one ? 20
Does the Treasurer think men so loyally tame,
When their pensions are stopped, to be fooled with
a sight ?
And 'tis forty to one, if he play the old game,
He '11 reduce us ere long to rehearse forty-eight.
The Trojan horse, so (not of brass, but of wood),
Had within it an army that burned down the town ;
However, 'tis ominous, if understood,
For the old King on horseback is but an half-crown.
Yet, his brother-in-law's horse had gained such repute,
That the Treasurer thought prudent to try it again ;
And, instead of that market of herbs and of fruit, [30
He will here keep a shambles of Parliament men.
But why is the work then so long at a stand ?
Such things you should never, or suddenly do :
As the Parliament twice was prorogued by your hand,
Would you venture so far to prorogue the King too ?
29. The Statue of Charles II,, erected by Sir Robert Viner
(see p. 66).
ioo ANDREW MARVELL.
Let 's have a King, sir, be he new, be he old,
Not Viner delayed us so, though he were broken :
Though the King be of copper, and Danby of gold,
Shall the Treasurer of guineas refuse such a token?
The housewifery treasuress sure is grown nice,
And so liberally treated the members at supper ;
She thinks not convenient to go to the price,
And we 've lost both our King, and our horse, and
Where so many parties there are to provide,
To buy a King is not so wise as to sell ;
And however, she said, it could not be denied,
That a monarch of gingerbread might do as well.
But the Treasurer told her he thought she was mad,
And his Parliament list too withal did produce ; 50
When he showed her, that so many voters he had,
As would the next tax reimburse them with use.
So the statue will up after all this delay,
But to turn the face towards Whitehall you must
Though of brass, yet with grief it would melt him
To behold such a prodigal Court and a son
A DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO HORSES.
WE read, in profane and sacred records,
Of beasts which have uttered articulate words :
When magpies and parrots cry, lualk^ knaves, walk!
It is a clear proof that birds too may talk ;
And statues, without either windpipes or lungs,
Have spoken as plainly as men do with tongues.
Livy tells a strange story, can hardly be fellowed,
That a sacrificed ox, when his guts were out, bellowed ;
Phalaris had a bull, which grave authors tell ye,
Would roar like a devil with a man in his belly ; 10
Friar Bacon had a head that spake made of brass ;
And Balaam the prophet was reproved by his ass ;
At Delphos and Rome stocks and stones, now and
Have to questions returned articulate answers.
All Popish believers think something divine,
When images speak, possesseth the shrine ;
But they that faith catholic ne'er understood,
When shrines give an answer, a knave's on the rood.
Those idols ne'er spoke, but are miracles done
By the devil, a priest, a friar, or a nun. 20
i 8." [Think] a knave's," &c.
102 ANDREW MARVELL.
If the Roman church, good Christians, oblige ye
To believe man and beast have spoke in effigy,
Why should we not credit the public discourses
In a dialogue between two inanimate horses ?
The horses I mean of Wool-Church and Charing,
Who told many truths worth any man's hearing,
Since Viner and Osborne did buy and provide 'em
For the two mighty monarchs who now do bestride 'em.
The stately brass stallion and the white marble steed
One night came together, by all 'tis agreed ; 30
When both Kings were weary of sitting all day,
Were stolen off, incognito, each his own way ;
And then the two jades, after mutual salutes,
Not only discoursed, but fell to disputes.
QUOTH the marble horse,
It would make a stone speak,
To see a Lord Mayor and a Lombard Street break,
Thy founder and mine to cheat one another,
When both knaves agreed to be each other's
Here Charing broke forth, and thus he went on : 40
My brass is provoked as much as thy stone,
To see church and state bow down to a whore,
DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO HORSES. 103
And the King's chief minister holding the door ;
The money of widows and orphans employed,
And the bankers quite broke to maintain the whore's
To see Dei Gratia writ on the throne,
And the King's wicked life say, God there is none.
That he should be styled Defender of the Faith,
Who believes not a word what the Word of God
That the Duke should turn papist, and that Church
For which his own father a martyr did die.
Though he changed his religion, I hope he's so civil
Not to think his own father is gone to the devil.
That bondage and beggary should be in a nation
By a cursed House of Commons, and a blessed
To see a white staff make a beggar a lord,
And scarce a wise man at a long council-board.
56. Lord Danb}'.
104 ANDREW MARVELL.
That the Bank should be seized, yet the 'Chequer
<" Lord have mercy ! " and a cross may be set on
That a million and half should be the revenue, 60
Yet the King of his debts pay no man a penny.
That a King should consume three kingdoms'
And yet all the Court be as poor as church rats.
That of four seas dominion, and of all their
No token should appear, but a poor copper farthing.
Our worm-eaten ships to be laid up at Chatham,
Not our trade to secure, but for fools to come at 'em.
And our few ships abroad become Tripoli's scorn,
By pawning for victuals their guns at Leghorn.
That, making us slaves by horse and foot guard, 70
For restoring the King, shall be all our reward.
DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO HORSES. 105
The basest ingratitude ever was heard !
But tyrants ungrateful are always afeared.
On Harry the Seventh's head he that placed the
Was after rewarded by losing his own.
That Parliament-men should rail at the Court,
And get good preferments immediately for 't ;
To see them that suffered for father and son,
And helped to bring the latter to his throne,
That with lives and estates did loyally serve, 80
And yet for all this can nothing deserve ;
The King looks not on 'em, preferments denied
The Roundheads insult, and the courtiers deride
And none get preferments, but who will betray
Their country to ruin ; 'tis that opes the way
Of the bold -talking members.
If the bastards you add,
What a number of rascally lords have been made.
That traitors to the country, in a bribed House of
Should give away millions at every summons.
io6 ANDREW MARVELL.
Yet some of those givers, such beggarly villains, 90
As not to be trusted for twice fifty shillings.
No wonder that beggars should still be for giving,
Who out of what's given do get a good living.
Four knights and a knave, who were burgesses
For selling their consciences were liberally paid.
How base are the souls of such low-prized sinners,
Who vote with the Court for drink and for dinners !
Tis they who brought on us this scandalous
Of excising our cups, and taxing our smoke.
But thanks to the whores who made the King
For giving no more the rogues are prorogued.
That a King should endeavour to make a war
Which augments and secures his own profit and
96. Prized, priced.
DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO HORSES. 107
And plenipotentiaries sent into France,
With an addle-headed knight, and a lord without
That the King should send for another French
When one already had made him so poor.
The misses take place, each advanced to be duchess,
With pomp great as queens in their coach and six
Their bastards made dukes, earls, viscounts, and
lords, 1 10
And all the high titles that honour affords.
While these brats and their mothers do live in such
The nation's impoverished, and the 'Chequer quite
And though war was pretended when the money was
More on whores, than in ships or in war, hath been
Enough, my dear brother, although we speak reason,
Yet truth many times being punished for treason,
io8 ANDREW MARVELL.
We ought to be wary, and bridle our tongue,
Bold speaking hath done both men and beasts
When the ass so boldly rebuked the prophet, 120
Thou knowest what danger had like to come of it ;
Though the beast gave his master ne'er an ill word,
Instead of a cudgel, Balaam wished for a sword.
Truth 's as bold as a lion, I am not afraid ;
I'll prove every tittle of what I have said.
Our riders are absent, who is 't that can hear ?
Let's be true to ourselves, whom then need we fear ?
Where is thy King gone ?
To see Bishop Laud.
Mine to cuckold a scrivener's in masquerade ;
For on such occasions he oft strays away, 130
And returns to remount me about break of day.
In very dark nights sometimes you may find him,
With a harlot got up on my crupper behind him.
Pause, brother, awhile, and calmly consider
What thou hast to say against my royal rider.
Thy priest-ridden King turned desperate fighter
For the surplice, lawn-sleeves, the cross, and the
DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO HORSES. 109
Till at last on the scaffold he was left in the lurch,
By knaves, who cried up themselves for the church.
Archbishops and bishops, archdeacons and deans !
Thy King will ne'er fight unless 't be for his
He that dies for ceremonies, dies like a fool.
The King on thy back is a lamentable tool.
The goat and the lion I equally hate,
And freemen alike value life and estate ;
Though the father and son be different rods,
Between the two scourgers we find little odds ;
Both infamous stand in three kingdoms' votes,
This for picking our pockets, that for cutting our
More tolerable are the lion-king's slaughters, 150
Than the goat making whores of our wives and our
The debauched and cruel, since they equally gall
I had rather bear Nero than Sardanapalus,
no ANDREW MARVELL.
One of the two tyrants must still be our case,
Under all who shall reign of the false Stuart's race.
De Witt and Cromwell had each a brave soul,
I freely declare it, I am for old Noll ;
Though his government did a tyrant resemble,
He made England great, and his enemies tremble,
Thy rider puts no man to death in his wrath, 160
But is buried alive in lust and in sloth.
What is thy opinion of James, Duke of York ?
The same that the frogs had of Jupiter's stork.
With the Turk in his head, and the Pope in his
Father Patrick's disciples will make England smart.
If e'er he be King, I know Britain's doom,
We must all to a stake, or be converts to Rome.
Ah, Tudor ! ah, Tudor ! we have had Stuarts
None ever reigned like old Bess in the ruff.
Her Walsingham could dark counsels unriddle, 170
And our Sir Joseph write news, books, and fiddle.
Truth, brother, well said ; but that's somewhat bitter ;
His perfumed predecessor was never more fitter :
DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO HORSES, in
Yet we have one Secretary honest and wise ;
For that very reason, he 's never to rise.
But canst thou devise when things will be mended ?
When the reign of the line of the Stuarts is
If speeches from animals in Rome's first age
Prodigious events did surely presage,
That should come to pass, all mankind may swear
That which two inanimate horses declare. [180
But I should have told you, before the jades parted,
Both galloped to Whitehall, and there humbly
Which tyranny's downfall portended much more,
Than all that the beasts had spoken before.
If the Delphic Sibyl's oracular speeches
(As learned men say) came out of their breeches,
Why might not our horses, since words are but
Have the spirit of prophecy likewise behind ?
Though tyrants make laws, which they strictly
proclaim, [ I9 o
To conceal their own faults and to cover their
Yet the beasts in the field, and the stones in the
Will punish their faults and prophesy their fall ;
112 ANDREW MARVELL.
When they take from the people the freedom of
They teach them the sooner to fall to their swords.
Let the city drink coffee and quietly groan,
They who conquered the father won't be slaves to
For wine and strong drink make tumults increase,
Chocolate, tea, and coffee are liquors of peace ;
No quarrels or oaths are among those who drink
'Tis Bacchus and the brewer swear, damn 'em ! and
sink 'em !
Then, Charles, thy late edict against coffee recall,
There's ten times more treason in brandy and ale.
BLUDIUS ET CORONA.
BLUDIUS, ut ruris damnum repararet aviti,
Addicit fisco dum diadema suo :
Egregium sacro facinus velavit amictu :
(Larva solet reges fallere nulla magis) :
Excidit ast ausis tagtus pietate profana :
Custodem ut servet, maluit ipse capi.
Si modo saevitiam texisset pontificalem
Veste sacerdotis, rapta corona foret.
114 ANDREW MARVELL.
SHARPIUS exercet dum saevas perfidus iras,
Et proprii pastor sit lupus ipse gregis ;
Lenta videbatur coeli vindicta Michello,
Et fas in talem credidit omne nefas.
Peccat in insonti sed praesule missile plumbum,
(Insons si praesul quilibet esse potest).
Culpa par, at dispar sequitur fortuna Jacobos :
Ocrea torquet idem, mitra beatque scelus.
Quanta at percussor crimen virtute piavit !
Judicibusque ipsis quam reverendus erat ! 10
Quid de se fieret melius praetore docebat :
Non poenas ilium sed dare jura putes.
Carnificem tremuJum jubet abstinuisse sinistra ;
Errorem dextrae dextera sura luat.
Nee mora, feralem tortore aptante cothurnum
Tanquam sutori commodat usque pedem :
Intima contuse et dum ringitur osse medulla,
Calceus urit ubi cernere nemo queat.
Ut vocat ! ut proprii sedet ad spectacula cruris
Immotus populo commiserante reus ! 20
Non vultu aut ulla confessus voce dolorem,
Sub cuneo quanquam tibia pressa gemit.
SCAEVOLA SCOTO-BRITANNUS. 115
Inter lictoris nisus feriatur anheli :
Nee vult supplicii conscius esse sui.
Lassus at interea patitur tormenta minister
(Qui sentit solus dicitur ille pati) ;
Scaevola si Thuscum potuit terrere lyrannum,
Fortius hoc specimen Scotia nostra dedit.
Numina cum temnas, homines ne spernito, Sharpi,
Hie e tercentum Mutius unus erat. 30
FLECNOE, AN ENGLISH PRIEST AT ROME.
Richard Flecknoe, who is believed to have died in
1678, appears to have been a Roman Catholic priest.
In 1645 he went to Rome, where, he says, he was
chiefly occupied with pictures and statues. In
1647 he proceeded to Constantinople. He
wrote many poems and plays, and was described
by Dryden (in his satire directed against Shad-
well) as "through all the realms of nonsense,
P. 3, 1. 4-
Presumably Fulke Greville, created Lord Brooke
P. 3, I- 6.
The pelican feeding her young with blood from
her own bosom was a well-known symbol. See 11.
120 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 4, 1. 28.
Milton (" Lycidas ") calls the love of fame " That
last infirmity of noble mind."
P. 4, 1. 34-
"Still." Changed, for the worse, in preceding
editions, to "him."
P. 5, I- 46.
Dr. Grosart and other editors misprint " his."
P. 5, 1. 72.
This " basso-relievo of a man " had length and
breadth, but no natural depth.
P. 6, 1. 93-
Will make my way through ; but Marvell wilfully
misinterprets the phrase as meaning, will clear a way
for you. See below : " And to make me way Went
P. 8, 1. 147.
" He " omitted in previous editions.
P. 9, 1. 170.
Persons wishing to give thanks for recovery from
illness or escape from accident commonly hung a
picture over the shrine of their patron-saint.
TOM MAY'S DEATH.
Thomas May (1594-1650) was a dramatist, poet,
and historian, now best known for his translation of
Lucan's "Pharsalia," and for his continuation of that
poem, in Latin and English. May enjoyed the
patronage of Charles I., but joined the Parliamentary
party at the outbreak of the Civil War, and in 1647
published "The History of the Parliament of
England, which began Nov. 3, 1640." An abridg
ment, in English, appeared in 1650, and a few months
later, on Nov. 13, May died, in his sleep. This was
attributed by some to suffocation, due to his having
tied his night-cap too tight, but others said the cause
was drink. He was honoured by being buried in
Westminster Abbey, by order of Parliament, but the
body was taken up at the Restoration, and his
P. 10, 1. 7.
The " Pope's Head," in Lombard Street. Pope's
Head Alley leads from Cornhill to Lombard Street.
The " Mitre " was probably the tavern in Fenchurch
Street, mentioned by Pepys, Aug. 14, 1662. There
was another Mitre Tavern in Wood Street, also
familiar to Pepys.
P. 10, 1. 10.
Perhaps the pilot Ayres, mentioned by Pepys in a
letter to W. Hewer, May 8, 1682.
P. 10, 1. 13.
Jonson, who had numbered May among his
P. 10, 1. 22.
Alluding to the beginning of May's translation of
Lucan's " Pharsalia."
122 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. u, 1. 38-
In 1634 the gentlemen of the Inns of Court per
formed a masque before the King, and May, coming
across the choleric Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke,
in the Banqueting Hall, that nobleman who was
then Lord Chamberlain broke his staff over May's
shoulders, not knowing who he was. The King told
Pembroke that May was his poet, and on the follow
ing day the Lord Chamberlain apologized, and gave
May fifty pounds (Strafford's Letters, i. 207).
P. II, 1. 44.
May's History of the Long Parliament is full of
classical parallels and similitudes ; e.g., Strafford is
compared to Curio (p. 21) and Lucan is quoted.
P. 12, 1. 60.
May hoped to succeed Jonson as Laureate in 1637 ;
and when the office was given to Davenant he turned
P. 12, 1. 73-
After praising Essex in the History of the Long
Parliament, May went over to the Independents,
and in the Breviary of the History of the Parliament
of England lauded Fairfax, Cromwell, the New Model
Army, and the Independent party (See Guizot's
Monk's Contemporaries.) Spartacus may refer to
either Essex or Fairfax, or to the Parliamentary armies
in general. In any case, Jonson is made to say,
"You have apostatized from poetry and poets, to
chronicle the feats of revolted slaves."
P. 12, 1. 74.
Spartacus, taken as the type of a hired fighter.
May's History of the Long Parliament is first heard
of in the newspapers as a History of the Earl of
P. 12, 1. 76.
May's Breviary of the History of the Parliament
of England (1650) ends with an apology for not giving
an account of the King's trial and execution.
P. 13, 1. 82.
On Nov. 1 8, 1650, the Council of State ordered
arrangements to be made for May's burial, and the
erection of a monument, at a cost not exceeding ^100
(Cal. State Papers, 1650, p. 432).
P. 13, 11. 86-7.
If these lines refer to what occurred in 1661, the
author of the article on May in the Biographica
Britannica is right in his suggestion that this satire
was written after the Restoration, though we cannot
agree that " Marvell had some views of advantage by
appearing a Royalist." On Sept. 12, 1661, May's
body was removed from the Abbey and buried, with
others, in a pit in the green on the north side of the
Abbey (Chester's Registers of Westminster Abbey,523).
THE CHARACTER OF HOLLAND.
This poem was evidently written early in 1653 ( see
note on p. 126), probably before the fight on Feb. 18,
124 AND RE IV MARVELL.
and certainly before Deane's death in June (see
p. 19;. But Dr. Grosart, in spite of the clear
internal evidence, suggested 1673 or 1674 as the date,
and endeavoured to explain the various allusions
accordingly. He was partly misled by the fact that
in Dr. Philip Bliss's Sale Catalogue a copy of this
poem is mentioned, published by R. Horn, London,
1672. This pamphlet Dr. Grosart had not seen, but
Mr. Buxton Forman has kindly lent me a copy in his
possession. Before speaking, however, of the 1672
edition, it must be noted that, according to the
Harleian Miscellany (v. 613), this poem appeared
as a folio pamphlet of eight pages, in 1665,
"printed by T. Mabb, for Robert Horn." In that
edition the piece ended with the line, " The arms of
the United Provinces" (p. 17), but the following
doggerel lines were added :
" Vainly did this slap dragon fury hope
With sober English valour e'er to cope :
Not though they prime their barbarous morning's draught
With powder, and with pipes of brandy fraught :
Yet Sandwich, Rupert, and of all the Duke,
The Duke has made their sea-sick courage puke :
Like the thr^p comets, sent from Heaven down
With fiery flails to swinge th' ingrateful clown."
In other words, the general attack on Holland,
with which country we were again at war in 1665,
was preserved, which the remainder of the poem,
which referred specially to 1652-3, and to the deeds
of Deane, Blake, and Monck, was replaced by lines in
praise of the Duke of York, &c. It seems clear that
a printer, on the side of the Court, impudently
adapted Marvell's poem to the occasion. The edition
of 1672, published when we were once more at war
with Holland, is a quarto pamphlet reprinted from
the 1665 edition by the same publisher, Horn. No
trace of the original edition of the poem can be found.
The present text is from the State Poems of 1703.
P. 15, 1. 26.
The Dutch held that the Channel was, as Grotius
called it, Mare liberum, while the English maintained
that it was "the British sea." Selden's answer to
Grotius was called Mare Clausum, seu de Dominio
P. 15, 1. 28.
A Christmas game, of the nature of hunt-the-
slipper. The words are a corruption of " levaculo,"
or "leve le cul" ("jouer a cul-leve," Cotgrave).
One player supplanted another ; hence the phrase
was used for anything done in turns. Marvell means
that the land and water strove to supplant one
P. 16, 1. 61.
" To be God " (1665 version).
P. 17, 1. 80.
The States General of the United Provinces were
officially addressed as " High and Mighty Lords,"
or, in Dutch, " Hoog-mogenden " ; hence English
126 ANDREW MARVELL.
satirists called them " Hogans-mogans," and applied
the phrase to Dutchmen in general. Cf. "Hogan-
Moganides, or the Dutch Hudibras," 1674, and "A
new song upon the Hogen Mogens," in A Collection
of the newest Poems .... against Popery , &c, 1689.
P. 17, 1. 82.
A chief among the Batavi, who revolted in
P. 17, 1. 100.
The remainder of the poem is not given in the 1665
and 1672 editions. See p. 124 above.
P. 1 8, 11. 108 seq.
War with the Dutch broke out in May, 1652.
Tromp anchored his fleet off Dover, without saluting
the castle. An obstinately fought engagement followed,
and the Dutch were accused of treachery in attacking
Blake's fleet while negotiations for a treaty were pend
ing (Bisset's Commonwealth of England, ii. 313-329).
In August the hostile fleets met off the Shetland
Islands, but a storm occurred which did much more
damage to Tromp's ships than to Blake's. The
description in the Life of Van Tromp agrees exactly
with Marvell's : "Our sails were all rent and torn in
pieces, and the waves rolled through them ....
throwing their foam up to the very heaven " (Bisset,
ii. 343). On Sept. 28 Blake engaged De Witt and
De Ruyter off the Thames. Next day the Dutch fleet
refused to renew the fight, and fled. On Nov. 29,
however, Tromp appeared in the Downs, and on
the following day, partly through a sudden change in
the wind, Blake was defeated off Dungeness. Two
of our 'ships were captured, one burnt, and three blown
up. The wind, however, prevented Tromp pursuing,
but there is a tradition that he carried a broom at
the masthead to indicate that he had swept the
English from the seas. Colonel Richard Deane and
Monck were then appointed generals of the fleet in
association with Blake. Another battle occurred off
Portland, Feb. 18, 1653, when both sides suffered
severely, and Blake was wounded. In the next fight,
on June 3, 1653, the Dutch were defeated, but Deane
fell early in the day by Monck's side.
P. 18, 1. 113.
Another allusion to Grotius.
P. 18, 1. 118.
See Genesis xxxiv. 25.
P. 19, 1. 138.
The young Commonwealth. Hercules, who strangled
two snakes in his infancy, left the Hydra as a task for
THE LAST INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER ABOUT THE
DUTCH WARS, 1667.
Printed from the 1703 edition of the State Poems,
with some readings taken from that of 1689. The
poem was probably written irv August, 1667. See the
128 ANDREW MARVELL.
Introduction for the relation of this poem to pieces by
Waller and Denham.
P. 20, I. 1 6.
Dr. Robert Hooke, Professor of Geometry at
Gresham College. He died March 3, 1703. Pepys
writes (Jan. 20, 1665) : " To my bookseller's, and
there took home Hook's Book of Microscopy, a most
excellent piece, and of which I am very proud."
P. 20, 1. 17.
Sir Thomas Clifford was appointed Comptroller in
P. 21, 1. 28.
The incident is told of Protogenes, when painting
lalysus and his dog. (Pliny, Natural History ', xxxv.
10, s. 36.)
P. 21, 1. 29.
Henry Jermyn, Master of the Horse to Queen
Henrietta Maria, was created Earl of St. Albans in
April, 1660, at the Queen's desire, and became Lord
Chamberlain of the Household. He died in January,
1683-4, unmarried (Pepys, Nov. 22 and Dec. 31,
1662 ; Evelyn, Aug. 14, 1662 ; Sir John Reresby's
Memoirs, p. 4.)
P. 21, 1. 3 0.
jermyn was said to have been Henrietta Maria's
paramour, and to have been afterwards secretly
married to her but of this there is no proof,
P. 21, 1. 37-
On September i8th, 1683, Evelyn met Lord St.
Albans, then nearly blind. "He has lived a most
easy life, in plenty even abroad, when His Majesty
was a sufferer ; he has lost immense sums at play,
while yet, at about 80 years old, he continues, having
one that sits by him to name the spots in the cards.
He is a prudent old courtier, and much enriched since
His Majesty's return."
P. 21, 1. 38.
The 1703 edition of the State Poems has " cheats,"
but I follow the 1689 edition here (see Grammont,
Bonn's edition, p. 106 ; Pepys, Feb. 7, 1661, and
April 29, 1667). Lord St. Albans was sent as
ambassador to Louis XIV. in Jan., 1667, to make a
separate peace with the French, who were then in
alliance with Holland. His instructions are printed
in Lister's Life of Clarendon, iii. 443. Marvell
says he was good for nothing but to play at cards,
and treat. See the preceding notes.
P. 21, 1. 39.
Letters accrediting him as ambassador ; for the
Court might find it necessary to lie, and so, disavow
ing treaties, obtain supplies from Parliament.
P. 22, 1. 49.
Ann Hyde, James's first wife, who was confined
six weeks after her marriage, or re-marriage (Pepys).
A curious and interesting account is given by Clarendon
130 ANDREW MARVELL.
of his feelings on discovering his daughter's connection
with the Duke. The marriage was opposed by Queen
Henrietta Maria, the Duke's mother, and it was
alleged that Ann Hyde had had improper relations
with Sir Charles Berkeley. These charges were,
however, withdrawn, and the Duke and his mother
acknowledged that the suspicions that had been raised
were unjust. Clarendon's enemies maintained that
he persuaded Charles II. to marry a princess who
was known to be barren, in order that the Duke of
York, and ultimately his own grandson, might succeed
to the crown.
P. 22, 1. 50.
Margaret, Duchess of Newcastle. In April, 1667,
the Duke and Duchess came from the North to reside
at Clerkenwell ; and Pepys speaks of the Duchess's
"extraordinary fanciful habit, garb, and discourse ";
while Evelyn says : " The whole story of this lady is
a romance, and all she does is romantic."
P. 22, 1. 57.
Joseph Crowther, D.D., was the clergyman who
married the Duke and Duchess of York, in September,
1660. His deposition is given in the^ Fairfax Cor
respondence, ed. Robert Bell, iv. 271.
P. 22, 1. 58.
The Duke of York became a fellow of the Royal
Society on January I, 1667.
P. 22, 1. 62.
Pepys says she had " many black patches, because
of pimples, about her mouth." Lady Chaworth
wrote to her brother, Lord Roos, in 1668 and 1669,
that the Duchess had broken out on her face and leg
(Hist. MSS. Commission, Duke of Rutland's MSS.,
vol. ii. IG, il). Sir John Reresby (Memoirs, p. 64)
says she "was a very handsome woman, and had a
great deal of wit."
P. 22, 1. 66.
The Duchess was said to have poisoned Lady Denham
in a cup of chocolate (see "Clarendon's House-
warming"). Cups made of glass, &c., were thought
to give indication when poison was put into them.
On Nov. 10, 1666, Pepys noted Lady Denham's
illness, and the fact that she said she had been
poisoned ; on the 1 2th, he added that she charged
the Duke of York with poisoning her. She died on
Jan. 6, 1667, and next day Pepys wrote, " The
Duke of York is troubled for her." Grammont, in his
Memoirs (chap, ix.) says Sir John Denham poisoned
his wife through jealousy. Denham married Margaret,
daughter of Sir William Brooke, in 1665, and in 1666
he had a fit of madness, brought on by her intrigue
with the Duke of York, but he recovered before she
died. A post-morten examination showed no trace of
poison. In any case, Marvell had the common report
on his side in charging the Duke and Duchess of York
with poisoning her.
1 3 2 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 22, 1. 74.
Burnet tells us that when the Duchess died, in 1671,
one of her breasts, which was full of corruption,
P. 23, 1. 75-
Henry Sidney, youngest son of Robert, second Earl
of Leicester. He died in 1704. In November, 1665,
Lord Sandwich told Pepys that the Duchess of York
had fallen in love with Sidney, her new Master of the
Horse ; and in January, 1666, Sidney was banished
the Court (Grammont, chap. x.). Burnet says "he
was a man of sweet and caressing temper, had no
malice in his heart, but too great a love of pleasure."
P. 23, 1. 79.
Barbara Villiers, wife of Roger Palmer, created
Earl of Castlemaine in 1661. She was one of the
King's mistresses, and in 1670 was made Duchess of
Cleveland. She died in 1709. Burnet says, "She
was a woman of great beauty, but more enormously
vicious and ravenous ; foolish, but imperious ; very
uneasy to the King, and always carrying on intrigues
with other men, while yet she pretended she was
jealous of him."
P. 23, 1. 80.
Lady Castlemaine was charged with intrigues with
Jacob Hall, an athletic rope-dancer, and Henry
Jermyn, nephew of the Earl of St. Albans (Gram
mont ; Pepys, July and August, 1667).
P. 23, 1. 101.
Charles Porter, son of the Rector of Heveningham,
was born in 1631. He was Solicitor to the Duke of
York's Household, afterwards became Chancellor of
Ireland, and died suddenly in 1696 (Pepys and
P. 23, 1. 102.
Henry Jermyn, afterwards Earl of Dover, was a
nephew of Lord St. Albans, and was made Master of
the Horse to the Duke of York at the Restoration.
He had intrigues with Lady Castlemaine and Lady
Shrewsbury. Ultimately he married a Miss Gibbs,
but died without issue in 1 708. Grammont frequently
speaks of him.
P. 24, 1. 104.
Campaspe was Alexander's mistress, whom Apelles,
by Alexander's command, painted naked, and fell
violently in love with her. Alexander perceived it,
and for fear of any fatal consequence to Apelles gave
her to him. " To " is " the " in former editions.
P. 24,1. 114.
Sir Edward Turner, Speaker of the House, was
appointed Solicitor-General on Sept. I, 1667.
P. 24, 1. 121.
The word " Cabal " was used for a close council,
before the formation of the Cabal Ministry in 1670.
(See Pepys, Oct. 14, 1665.)
134 ANDREW MARVELL,
P. 24, 1. 124.
The 1710 edition of the State Poems has " Yet as
P. 24, 1. 126.
Francis Goodrick, M.P. for Aldborough, or Sir
John Goodrick, M.P. for the County of York, in
Sir Robert Paston, M.P. for Castle Rising, created
Viscount Yarmouth, in 1673, and Earl of Yarmouth
P. 25, 1. 129.
Sir Henry Bennet (1618-1685), created Baron
Arlington in 1663 and Earl of Arlington in 1672, was
a member of the Cabal ministry. He shared with
Sir Charles Berkeley the management of the King's
mistresses. (See Pepys, Grammont, Evelyn, and
P. 25, L 143.
Sir William Coventry said John Birch was " a false
rogue " (Pepys). He was a Colonel in the Parlia
mentary army, and M.P. for Leominster, a keen
man of business, and a strong Presbyterian. He held
several offices after the Restoration (Burnet ; and
Military Memoirs of Colotiel John Birch, 1873).
With this passage cf. Milton's account of the birth
and increase of Hell's portress.
P. 25, 1. 153.
"Young" is the reading of the 1689 edition;
*' your " in the State Poems of 1703.
P. 26, 1. 156.
John Ashburnham was Groom of the Bedchamber
to Charles I. and Charles II. He was M.P. for
Sussex, and died in 1671 (Pepys). He and Sir John
Berkeley arranged for the flight of Charles I. to the
Isle of Wight, but Berkeley rashly told the Governor
of the Island (Colonel Hammond) of the King's
hiding place, and Ashburnham himself was much
suspected by the Royalists, though, as it would now
appear, without warrant.
P. 26, 1. 1 60.
There were several M.P.'s of this name.
P. 26, 1. 162.
Probably Sir Henry Wood, M.P. for Hythe
(Pepys, September 19, 1666), and Clerk to the Board
of Green Cloth.
P. 26, 1. 170.
Sir Stephen Fox, of the Board of Green Cloth,
Paymaster of the Forces, and afterwards a Lord of
the Treasury. See Pepys, Clarendon, and Evelyn,
and the privately printed Memoirs of Sir Stephen
Fox, 1807. Fox was born at Farley, Wilts, in 1627,
and in his early years enjoyed the patronage of the
Percy family. He was knighted in 1665, and ob
tained great profits from his various offices.
P. 26, 1. I 73 .
Edward Prodgers, valet to the King, and confidant
of his master's intrigues. He was M.P. for Brecon-
136 ANDREW MARVELL.
shire, and was afterwards knighted. See Pepys and
P. 26, 1. 175.
Henry Brouncker, Cofferer to Charles II., and
Gentleman of the Bedchamber to the Duke of York.
Clarendon speaks of his " abominable nature," and
Pepys calls him a " corrupt and wicked " rogue. He
was expelled the House as an infamous person. See,
too, Grammont, Evelyn, and Marvell's Correspon
dence, April, 1668, and November, 1669.
P. 26, 1. 1 80.
Matthew Wren, eldest son of the Bishop of Ely,
was Secretary to Lord Clarendon, and afterwards to
the Duke of York. Pepys and Evelyn both describe
him as a very " ingenious " man.
P. 26, 1. 181.
Sir Job Charlton( 1614- 1697), Speaker of the House
of Commons in 1672, and M.P. for Ludlow. He was
knighted in 1662, became King's Sergeant in 1668,
and afterwards held other offices.
P. 26, 1. 181.
" Coif" is the reading of the 1689 edition. The
State Poems of 1703, and later editions, read " wife."
P. 27, 1. 186.
Sir Heneage Finch, created Earl of Nottingham in
1 68 1, after holding many offices, including those of
Attorney-General, Lord Keeper (Nov., 1673), and
Lord Chancellor (Dec., 1675).
Sir Edward Thurland, M.P. for Reigate, solicitor
to the Duke of York, and afterwards a Baron of the
P. 27, 1. 1 88.
Sir Jonathan Trelawney, Bart. , who, having served
with credit in the army, was made Governor of Ply
mouth by William III. In the Flagellum Parlia-
mentarium (1677) he is said to have received
gratuities of ,10,000, and to have been an informer.
P. 27, 1. 193.
In Oct. and Nov., 1666, the question of buying
up the tax on chimneys, which had been levied in
1662, and meeting the King's needs by some other
means, was much debated in Parliament ; but the
King ultimately would not part with the chimney
money (Pepys, April 3, 1667, and Marvell's Cor
respondence). The tax was abolished at the Revo
SirCourtenay Poole, M.P. for Honiton, mentioned
in the " Checker Inn," a poem printed in the preface
to Thompson's edition of Marvell's works, and
described in the Flagellum Parliamentarium as
" first mover of the chimney money for which he
P. 27, 1. 197.
Sir Thomas Higgins, Ambassador to Saxony and
Venice, married Bridget, sister of John Granville,
first Earl of Bath. Marvell, writing tq the Cor-
138 ANDREW MARVELL.
poration of Hull on Jan. 12, 1667, says, "Sir
Thomas Higons brought in a Bill, having married
with the Lady of Essex, to recover .5,550, disposed
of by an ordinance of Parliament, which, as contrary
to the Act of Indemnity, was thrown out 63 to 88."
It is stated in the Flagellum Parliamentarium that
Higgins had a pension of ^"500 a year, and received
,4,000 in gifts.
P. 27, 1. 199.
Probably Sir Frederick Hyde, Sergeant-at-Law to
the Queen, and M.P. for Haverfordwest. He died
in 1677. Sir Solomon Swale, M.P. for Aldborough,
was expelled the House in 1678 for being a Papist
(Reresby's Memoirs, 125, 133, 138-143).
P. 27, 1. 200.
"Sotts" (1689 version).
P. 27, 1. 203.
Sir George Carteret, Treasurer of the Navy, Vice-
Chamberlain, and (June, 1667) Deputy Treasurer for
Ireland. In 1669 he was censured by Parliament for
mismanagement of the accounts of the Navy. (See
Pepys, and Hist. MSS. Commission, 8th Rep. 128-
33.) Carteret died in 1680, and the writer of the
Flagellum Parliamentarium says he cheated the
Crown of ^40,000.
P. 27, 1. 204.
Carteret's education was defective. Pepys (July 4,
1663) sa Y s a schoolboy would have been whipped for
not knowing things of which this Privy Councillor
P. 27, 1. 206.
Richard Talbot, afterwards Duke of Tyrconnel.
See "Advice to a Painter," p. 79.
P. 27, 1. 207.
Sir John Buncombe, Master of the Ordnance, was
made a Privy Councillor and one of the Commission
for the Treasury in May, 1667 (Burnet; Clarendon's
Continuation of Life, 1 086-8).
P. 27, 1. 208.
Sir Charles Berkeley, who became second Viscount
Fitz Harding, in 1665, upon the death of his second
son, Lord Falmouth (first Viscount Fitz Harding). He
was Treasurer of the Household, and died in 1688
P. 27, 1. 212.
Sir Allen Apsley (1616-1683), Treasurer of the
Household to the Duke of York. On Dec. 19, 1666,
Pepys notes that Sir Allen Apsley and Sir Alan
Broderick had spoken in the House of Commons
for half an hour together in a drunken state, and could
not be quieted, "which I am grieved at with all my
heart." (See " Clarendon's House Warming," stanza
140 ANDREW MARVELL,
Sir Alan Broderick died in 1680 (Pepys). He
was one of the Commissioners for settling the
affairs of Ireland, and received large grants of land.
P. 28, 1. 213.
Powell was clerjc to Sir William Coventry. It was
Powell who told Pepys, on June 12, 1667, that the
Dutch had broken the chain at Chatham.
P. 28, 1. 214.
The reading of the 1689 edition. The 1703 edition
P. 28, 1. 218.
Henry Hyde, Viscount Cornbury, who succeeded
his father as second Earl of Clarendon in 1674. He
was Private Secretary and Lord Chamberlain to the
Queen; but, after his father's fall, he opposed the
Court Party and the Cabal Ministry.
P. 28, 1. 220.
Tothill Field was used for military musters.
P. 28, 11. 221-4.
These four lines seem hopelessly obscure. George
Monck, Duke of Albemarle, was in charge of
the fleet when the Dutch burned our ships in the
Thames in June, 1667. Tomkins is probably Sir
Thomas Tomkins, who made " many mad motions "
in the House (Pepys, June 3, 1663; July 25, 1667).
See 1. 793.
P. 28, I. 225.
Sir William and Henry, sons of Lord Coventry.
Both died in 1686. Henry Coventry was a Secretary
of State. Sir William Coventry spoke often against
Clarendon, and thus offended the Duke of York. He
retired from public life in 1668, but was for many
years a respected Member of Parliament. Margaret,
sister of Henry and William Coventry, married
Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury.
P. 28, 1. 239.
" Loose " is the reading of the 1689 edition. The
1 703 edition has ' ' close," which is obviously wrong.
P. 29, 1. 245.
Col. Giles Strangways, M.P. for Dorsetshire, was a
violent Churchman (Pepys, March 17, 1663). He died
in 1675, soon after being made a Privy Councillor.
(Marvell to William Ramsden, Esq., July 14, 1675.)
P. 29, 1. 249.
Codes, a noble Roman, maintained a pass alone,
and kept back a whole army, till the bridge behind
him was broken down, and then threw himself into the
Tiber, and swam to land.
P. 29, 1. 254.
So in 1689 edition. The 1703 edition has "And
now, to edge their anger, courage grind. "
P. 29, 1. 255.
Sir Richard Temple, M.P. for Buckingham (Pepys).
142 ANDREW MARVELL.
Clarendon names, as members who in 1666 made
themselves remarkable by opposing all things proposed
in the House for the King's services, Sir Richard
Temple, Mr. Seymour, Mr. Garroway, and Sir Robert
Howard, who were all bold speakers. These mem
bers joined with Buckingham and other Peers, and
made use, for their own purposes, of the agitation
against the importation of Irish cattle which occupied
the attention of both Houses at this time. The Irish
Bill was passed by the King in January, 1 667. Temple
had ,,1,200 a year as Commissioner of the Customs.
P. 29, 1. 257.
Edward Seymour, who took up the impeachment of
Clarendon to the House of Lords. He was elected
Speaker in 1672, and occupied that post until 1679,
when the King refused to accept him. He opposed
the Exclusion Bill of 1680, but he was a warm sup
porter of the Revolution of 1688.
P. 29, 1. 258.
Clarendon gives a long account of the passing of the
Canary Patent in 1665 ; the granting of the Charter
was afterwards made an accusation against him, and
the attention of Parliament was much occupied by the
subject in i667(Pepys, and Marvell's Correspondence).
See below, and "Clarendon's House-warming,"
P. 29, 1. 259.
Brome Whorwood was M.P. for Oxford City from
1661 to 1681.
P. 29, 1. 260.
John, Lord Mordaunt, Constable of Windsor Castle,
was impeached by the House of Commons in January,
1667, for forcibly ejecting William Tayleur and his
family from their rooms in the Castle, where Tayleur
held an appointment ; and for imprisoning him when
he offered himself as a candidate for the borough of
Windsor. He was also said to have had improper
designs towards Tayleur's daughter. Soon after the
matter reached the Lords, Parliament was prorogued,
and the matter dropped. (See MarvelFs further
allusions below, 11. 349, 422, and his Correspon
dence ; also Pepys, Nov. 26, 1666, Jan. 28, Feb. 8
and 17, June 27, July 29, and Oct. 25, 1667 ; Evelyn,
Nov. 23, 1666, &c.)
P. 29, 1. 261.
There were several members of this name. Pepys
(July 25, 1666) says that at Whitehall he met " Mr.
Williams, who would have me dine where he was
invited to dine, at the Back-Stairs."
P. 29, 1. 262.
John Lovelace, M.P. for Berkshire (afterwards
Lord Lovelace). See Luttrell, II. 234.
P. 29, 1. 263.
Edmund Waller, the poet, who lived until 1687.
Pepys saw him for the first time in March, 1665, and
it was in that year that Waller wrote his " Instructions
to a Painter,"
144 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 29, 1. 266.
Montezuma is the hero of the Indian Queen,
a tragedy written by John Dryden and Sir Robert
Howard. Evelyn (Oct 18, 1666) mentions Howard
as one of the gentlemen at Qourt who had fallen into
the snare of the actresses of the day, "to the reproach
of their noble families, and ruin of both body and
soul." On June 16, 1683, Evelyn called Howard a
*' universal pretender." Howard was Auditor of the
Exchequer, and a tool of the King (Pepys, Jan. 9,
P. 30, 1. 279.
The 1703 edition has "chasing." The reading of
the text is that of the 1689 edition.
P. 30, 1. 283.
" Pikes " is often printed " pipes," but probably in
P. 30, 1. 287.
Pepys (Nov. 5, 1666) notes that all the country
gentlemen were publicly jealous of the courtiers in
Parliament, and doubted everything that they pro
P. 30, 1. 290.
So in the 1689 version; "thing" in State
P. 30, 1. 298.
William Garroway, M.P. See "Britannia and
Raleigh," 1. 17, note.
Sir Thomas Littleton, Bart., elected for East Grin-
stead in 1679. He was Treasurer of the Navy, and
is mentioned by Pepys as acting in Parliament in
association with Garroway on May I and July 25,
1667. Littleton, Howard, and others who had been
brought over to the Court, and undertook to get the
King money, were called " Undertakers " in the
following February, but had not much power.
P. 31, 1. 299.
For Sir Thomas Lee, see p. 183.
P.3i> 1- SOL
Col. Samuel Sands, or Sandys, M.P. f or Ombersley.
P, 32, 1. 336.
See 11. 481 seq. below.
P. 32, 1. 337-
Jason's father, who was restored to youth by Medea.
P. 32, 1. 349.
See 1. 260, and note. Pepys, writing on July
29, 1667, says, " But above all, I saw my Lord
Mordaunt as merry as the best, that it seems hath,
done such further indignities to Mr. Tayleur since the
last sitting of Parliament as would hang him, if there
were nothing else, would the King do what were fit
for him ; but nothing of that is now likely to be. "
Pepys was right in his surmise, for though, when the
House met again in October, it was referred to a
Committee to revive the impeachment against Lord
Mordaunt, upon "a new petition and fresh matter
146 ANDREW MARVELL.
against him," more important questions intervened,
and nothing further appears to have been done
(Mar veil's Correspondence, Oct. 26, 1667).
P. 33, "I- 357-
The character of George Villiers, Duke of Buck
ingham, has been drawn by Dryden (in "Absalom and
Achitophel"), and by Pope (" Moral Essays"), in un
dying lines. In February, 1667, an attempt was made to
arrest the Duke of Buckingham for treason ; on March
II, a proclamation was issued, ordering him to sur
render, with which he complied at the end of June.
Lady Castlemaine interceded for him, and he was
released on July 17. When he was charged with
trying to make himself popular, he said that whoever
was committed to prison by my Lord Chancellor or
my Lord Arlington could not want being popular
(Pepys). Clarendon's account of these events will be
found in the Continuation of the Life, 1118-32.
P. 33, 1- 359-
The reference is probably to the Commissioners
appointed in 1666 to see that the money voted for the
war was properly expended. (Cf. Clarendon's Con
P. 33, 1. 369.
In May, 1667, Henry Coventry and Denzil Holies
(created Baron Holies in 1661) were sent to Breda to
negotiate a treaty between England and Holland.
P. 34, 1. 398.
Canvey island, on the Essex coast. The Dutch
advanced thus far up the Thames ; but Marvell says
that May and Arlington thought the news referred to
Candia, in the Mediterranean.
P. 34, I- 399-
Baptist May, son of Sir Humphrey May, was
Keeper of the Privy Purse to Charles II., and a
registrar in Chancery. He was elected M.P. for Mid-
hurst in 1670. Particulars of " Bab " May will be
found in Pepys, July 7 and 29, 1667, &c. He died in
P. 34, 1. 406.
Perhaps Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine, the
husband of the Mrs. Palmer who became Duchess of
P. 34, 1. 409.
Sir William Morrice (Morris), Secretary of State,
who retired from office in 1668, and died in 1676. He
was a learned and honest man, but had little capacity
for the public position he held.
P- 35. I- W-
" Well," from the 1689 version; " men " in State
Poems t 1703.
P. 37, 1. 419.
Pepys, June 8, 1667 et seq. On the 1 7th Pepys
heard that the King and Court were much troubled,
I 4 8 ANDREW MARVELL.
and the gates of the Court were shiuup upon the first
coming of the Dutch. On the 23rd he repeats that
"upon this ill news of the Dutch being upon us,
Whitehall was shut up." Clarendon, too, speaks of
the wild despair and ridiculous apprehensions expressed
by many persons at Whitehall, some of whom, but for
the composure shown by the King and Duke of York,
would have advised them to leave the city.
P. 35, 1- 425.
Sir Thomas Bludworth was the Lord Mayor who
showed such apathy during the Great Fire (Pepys).
P. 35, 1- 43L
Colonel Thomas Doleman was in command of the
land troops on board the Dutch fleet (Ludlow's
Memoirs, 1698, iii. 197-8). He was attainted of high
treason by Parliament in 1665 if he did not leave the
Dutch service, and surrender himself by a certain day.
As he did not obey, he is here called " disobedient."
(See the Lords' Journals, xi. 700. )
P- 35, I- 439-
See Pepys, March II and June 26, 1667. Full
particulars of these negotiations with France, carried
on through the Queen Mother and Lord St. Albans,
are given by Clarendon. Charles would not give St.
Albans formal power to treat.
P. 35, 1. 441.
As husband of Queen Henrietta Maria.
P. 37, 1. 470.
Clarendon says that when the Dutch sailed up the
Thames, some advised the King to summon the
Parliament, which had been prorogued till October
20. " Surely most discerning men thought such a
conjunction so unreasonable for the council of a
Parliament, that if it had been then sitting, the most
wholesome advice that could be given would be to
separate them, till that occasion should be over, which
could be best provided for by a more contracted
council." But the King, pressed for money, consulted
the council, and in spite of difficulties raised by
Clarendon as to the legality of calling together a
Parliament before the day to which it had been pro
rogued, it was decided to issue a proclamation
summoning members to attend.
P. 37, 1. 480.
Parliament met on July 25, and at once desired
the King, if there were a peace, to disband all the
new-raised land forces. On the 29th Charles said
that peace was now made, and he prorogued Parlia
ment till October. The troops here referred to had
been raised at the King's wish, by certain noblemen,
at their own charge, in order that it might be done
" without jealousy of the people" (Clarendon, and
Marvell's Correspondence). Pepys says (July 25)
that it was plain that if this Parliament were allowed
to sit, they would fall foul of the faults of the
150 ANDREW MARVELL.
Government, " and I pray God they may be permitted
to do it ; for nothing else, I fear, will save the King
and kingdom than the doing it betimes."
P. 38, 1. 496.
Genesis xxiv. 2.
P. 38, 1. 506.
"That's" is the 1689 reading ; " cheats " in State
P. 38, I- 513.
The leaves were held to be a specific against venom,
and the juice against serpents.
P. 38, 1. SH.
A tasteless pot-herb. "Balm, with the destitution
of God's blessing, does as much good as a branch of
herb-john in our pottage " (Rev. T. Adams, Works,
P. 38, 1. 518.
On Oct. 23, 1667, the Commons voted that
thanks should be given to Prince Rupert and George
Monck, Duke of Albemarle, for their care and conduct
in the last year's war ; " which is a strange act," says
Pepys, Albemarle being, in his opinion, a blockhead,
who had the luck to be loved, though he was the
heaviest man in the world, but stout and honest to his
P. 40, 1. 561.
Sir Edward Spragge, knighted for fiis gallant
conduct in the first sea-fight with the Dutch in 1665.
He was drowned in 1673, during an action with Van
Tromp (Pepys, July 24, 27, 29, Aug. 9, 1667).
P. 41, 1. 588.
Fleas were often exhibited, shackled to small car
P. 41, 1. 596.
See Monck's own narrative, given in Parliament on
Oct. 13, 1667 (Grey's Debates, i. 24, note).
P. 42, 1. 605.
William Legge, Treasurer and Superintendent of
the Ordnance (Pepys, April 24 and June 13, 1667).
P. 42, 1. 606.
On June n, 1667, the train-bands were ordered
upon pain of death to appear in arms next morning,
with bullet and powder, and money to buy food for a
P. 42, 1. 607.
On June 13, Pepys notes that the citizens were
crying out that the Office of the Ordnance had unduly
delayed sending powder to Chatham or Upnor Castle,
which had been built by Queen Elizabeth. Legge
they denounced as a Papist. On June 14, I7 and
30, Pepys makes other references to the inadequate
defence of Upnor Castle. (See also Evelyn, June 10,
P. 42, 1. 612.
"The news is true that the Dutch have broke the
chain and burned our ships, and particularly the
152 ANDREW MARVELL.
Royal Charles God help us!" (Pepys,
June 12, 1667). Commissioner Pett should, Pepys
adds next day, have carried this vessel up higher,
according to his orders, "and deserves, therefore, to
be hanged for not doing it."
P. 43, 1. 631-
A year earlier (June 4, 1666) Daniel brought news
of an unduly optimist nature of the fight in the
Downs. Pepys describes him as "all muffled up and
his face as black as the chimney, and covered with
dirt, pitch, and tar, and powder, and muffled with
dirty clouts, and his right eye stopped with oakum."
P. 43, 1. 650.
Cf. Sir John Denham's "Directions to a Painter : "
"Next let the flaming London come in view,
Like Nero's Rome burnt to rebuild it new ;
What lesser sacrifice than this were meet
To offer for the safety of the Fleet ?
Blow one ship up, another thence will grow ;
See what free cities and wise Courts can do ! " .
P. 43, 1- 656.
The 1710 edition of the State Poems reads "sides,"
which Dr. Grosart accepts.
P. 44, 1. 664.
Ships were sunk to prevent the Dutch penetrating
farther up the river.
P. 44, 1. 669.
The 1689 version ; the 1703 edition has "fir."
P. 45, I- 6 9-
" Change " (1689) ; the ordinary version is "chance."
P. 46, 1. 716.
Charles Stewart, Duke of Richmond, who had
recently married Miss Frances Stewart (Pepys, April
3 and 26, 1667). Miss Stewart had hoped the King
would marry her if the Queen died, as was expected
in 1663 (Grammont's Memoirs). Perhaps there is an
allusion in 1. 714 to the story that Miss Stewart was
the model for the figure of Britannia on our coins.
P. 46, 1. 719-
Sir Peter Pett, Commissioner for the Navy (not to
be confounded with Evelyn's Phineas Pett, another
Commissioner). " Commissioner Pett was sent for
from Chatham, and sent last night to the Tower. He
is most undoubtedly to be sacrificed ; all that are
greater lay the fault upon him in hopes that he is to
bear all the blame ; the town has no mind to be so
satisfy'd. What will happen time is to shew "
(Henry Savile to Sir George Savile, June 18, 1667
Savile Correspondence}. Pepys gives many particu
lars of the charges against Pett ; but remarks that
Pett's faults seemed to him only great omissions. See
his Diary, May 22; June II, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19,
20 ; Oct. 22, 25, 31 ; Nov. 13, 1667 ; March 26,
1669. Evelyn (Aug. 10, 1663) says Pett was thought
the most skilful shipbuilder in the world. On Nov.
16, 1667, the House voted Pett's impeachment, but
he seems to have escaped with loss of his office.
154 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 47, 1. 745.
The Earl of Southampton, the Lord Treasurer, died
on May 16, 1667, and Pepys says there was much
talk of the good end he had made, and that he had
the cleanest hands of any Lord Treasurer ; but he
was slow and easy-going. Clarendon draws his
character at great length.
P. 47, 1. 749-
Saltpetre. This ironical passage refers to Dun-
combe's transference to the Treasury from the
Ordnance. The Treasury was placed in commission
upon Lord Southampton's death, and when Duncombe
was proposed as a Commissioner by the Duke of
York, Clarendon said, " It would be very incongruous
to bring Sir John Duncombe, who was a private
country gentleman, and utterly unacquainted with
business of that nature, to sit in equal authority with
Privy Councillors, and in affairs that would be often
debated at the Council-table, where he could not be
present." But the King said he could easily meet
this difficulty by making him a Privy Councillor
(Continuation of Life, 1086-8).
P. 47, 1. 763.
Gilbert Sheldon, Bishop of London, became Arch
bishop in 1663, and had great influence with the
King. On May 14, 1669, Pepys dined at Lambeth,
and the guests were entertained with a mock sermon,
in caricature of the Presbyterians ; Pepys could not
help wondering at Sheldon making sport with things
of this kind ; but "he took care to have the room
door shut." Elsewhere he mentions current reports
of Sheldon's immorality.
P. 47, 1. 765-
Miss Boynton, daughter of Matthew Boynton,
second son of Sir Matthew Boynton, was a maid
of honour to the Queen, and married Richatd Talbot,
afterwards Duke of Tyrconnel (Grammont).
Mrs. Jane Middleton, the first whom Grammont
"attacked" upon his arrival in England, was
"one of the handsomest women in town," and a
coquette ; but as he found she was at the same time
cautious, Grammont sought amusement elsewhere.
(Dr. Grosart mistakenly substitutes "Mazarine" for
the " M " or " Middleton " of older editions, and
gravely surmises that the persons mentioned in this
line must be women, and not Colonel Boynton and
Cardinal Mazarine ! The fact that the Duchess
Mazarine did not come to England until 1676 shows
that she is not referred to here).
P. 48, 1. 789-
Sir Edward Turner, the Speaker. See 1. 114
above. Parliament met on July 25, 1667, as already
mentioned (1. 480, note), and was prorogued on the
29th. Pepys gives an account of the proceedings:
Sir Thomas Tomkins drew attention to the discontent
caused by the new-raised standing army ; but Garro-
156 ANDREW MARVELL.
way, who pretended to second the motion, turned
the edge of the attack by suggesting that the troops
should be disbanded, "as soon as peace should be
concluded " (see 11. 121-4).
P. 49, 1. 807.
Perhaps Evelyn's "good friend, Mr. Eaton, after
wards a judge " (Diary, July 9, 1649).
Pp. 51-2, 11. 880-7.
Sir William Coventry (see 1. 225, note) was ad
mitted to the Privy Council at the request of the Duke
of York (to whom he was Secretary), but he used his
position there and in Parliament to bring about the
fall of Clarendon, thus betraying his master James
and his interests for the benefit of Charles (Clarendon,
Continuation of Life, 739, 777, 1115, 1135?
P. 52, 1. 885.
The Earl of Bristol, who impeached Clarendon in
P. 52, 1. 891.
So in the 1689 edition ; the 1703 edition reads,
"But he in wise anger does their crimes forbear
TO THE KING.
P. 54, I- 34-
Cf. Holland's />/*? (Nat. Hist. 1. viii. c. 29) : "M.
Varro writes, that there was a towne in Spain under-
mined by connies ; and another likewise in Thessalia
by the mold-warpes."
Evelyn, writing to Lord Cornbury on Jan. 23, 1666,
after a visit to Clarendon House, says : " I went with
prejudice and a critical spirit, incident to those who
fancy they know anything in art ; I acknowledge that
I have never seen a nobler pile. ... It is, with
out hyperbole, the best contrived, the most useful,
graceful, and magnificent house in England." See,
too, Evelyn's Diary, Oct. 15, 1664; May 22, Nov.
28, 1666 ; April 27, 1667 (when the palace was
"newly-finished and furnished"); Dec. 20, 1668;
June 19, Sep. 18, 1683 (when the palace was being
demolished) ; June 12, 1684 ; and Pepys, June 14 and
24, 1667. The house cost ^"50,000, and was
ultimately sold to the Duke of Albemarle for ^25,000.
P. 55, 1- 13-
For Rhodopis, see Herodotus, ii. 134-5.
P. 55. 1- IS-
See the " Last Instructions to a Painter," 11. 49, seq.
P. 56, 11. 22-3.
Sir William Poultney was one of the original pro
prietors of the land granted to Clarendon by Charles
II. in June, 1664, for the site of his house (Lister's Life
of Clarendon, iii. 525). On Oct. I, a royal licence
158 ANDREW MARVELL.
was granted to Sir John Denham, Kt. of the Bath,
Surveyor of the Works, and Sir William Poultney,
Kt. , and their heirs and assigns, to build upon a patch
of ground, which was bounded by London highway
to the south, by the Earl of Clarendon's wall to the
west, by the house and grounds of John Emlyn,
brickmaker, on the east, and by Crab-tree field on the
north. Not more than ten or twelve houses were to
be built, each of them at a mininum cost of ^1,000
(MSS. sold at Sotheby's, March 23, 1892). See,
too, pp. 162-3. When Dido wished to build Carthage,
she bought as much land as could be enclosed with
a bull's hide; but by cutting the hide into small
thongs, she made it include a large amount of ground
(Virgil, &neid i. 367-8).
P. 5 6, 1. 27.
See the " Last Instructions to a Painter," 11. 65-8.
P. 57, 1. 41.
The forts at Ayr, Inverness, Leith, &c., were
demolished after the Restoration.
P- 57, 1. 43-
An expensive stone "mole" had been built at
Tangier to improve the harbour.
P. 57, 1. 44.
There was a proposal to repair St. Paul's, which
was afterwards laid aside, and the stones intended
for that purpose were bought by Lord Clarendon
and used in building his house.
P. 57, 1- 49-
Sir Allen Apsley and Sir Alan Broderick, Claren
don's friends. See " Last Instructions to a Painter,"
1. 212, note.
P- 58, I- 57-
Before his palace was finished, Clarendon lived in
Worcester House, Strand (Evelyn, Oct. 15, 1664).
The Earl of Worcester offered the house to Clarendon
in 1660, and Clarendon says he paid 500 a year for
it (Lister's Life of Clarendon, iii. 108).
P. 58, 1. 69.
John Bulteel, Esq., of London, was chosen M.P.
for Lostwithiel in 1661, and died early in 1670
(Pepys, Aug. 22, 1667).
"Beaken" is possibly Beachem, a jeweller men
tioned by Pepys.
For Colonel Morley, see Pepys and Evelyn.
Matthew Wren, Clarendon's secretary, died in
1672. See "Last Instructions," 1. 180, note.
P. 58, 1. 70.
Alderman Sir Thomas Chitterbuck (Pepys, Feb. 4,
Kipps was Clarendon's seal-bearer (Pepys, July 8,
P. 58, 1. 72-
Clarendon is. said to have procured gifts of furniture
and paintings from those who had spoiled the cavaliers.
160 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 58, 11. 73-5-
See the " Last Instructions to a Painter," 11. 93,
P. 59, 1. 78.
This vessel is mentioned by Pepys, June 4, 1666.
P. 59, 1. 81.
See Pepys, June 17, 1667.
P. 59, 1. 82.
Sir John Wolstenholme, Collector of Customs.
UPON His HOUSE.
P. 6l, 1. 2.
Another writer in the State Poems says :
" God will revenge, too, for the stones he took
From aged Paul's to make a nest for rooks."
But it is not to be forgotten that Clarendon paid for
P. 6i, 1. 5.
The suggestion is that Clarendon embezzled the
money granted by Parliament for the relief of
P. 61, 1. 7.
Some called the palace Dunkirk House, intimating
that it was built by Clarendon's share of the price of
Dunkirk. Tangier was part of Queen Katharine's
P. 61, 1. 9.
It was said that Clarendon received money from
the Dutch to treat of a peace.
EPIGRAM UPON HIS GRANDCHILDREN.
This epigram was printed with c ' Clarendon's House-
warming," in the volume published in 1667. The
Duke of Kendal, James's third son, died on May 26,
1667 ; and Edgar, the fourth son (the Duke of Cam
bridge), who was born on June 14, 1667, was not
expected to live. He did not die, however, until
June 8, 1671. Lady Denham ("Denham's Ghost")
died on January 6, 1667, and was said to have been
poisoned at the instigation of Clarendon's daughter,
the Duchess of York. (See "Last Instructions to a
Painter," 11. 65-8.)
FARTHER INSTRUCTIONS TO A PAINTER.
P- 63, 1. 10
Henry IV., Act ii., Sc. 2.
P. 63, 1. 22.
Edward Seymour, M.P. for Hindon, Speaker, and
Commissioner of the Admiralty, with 6,000 a year
as salary. The author of the Flagellum Par Harriett-
tarium says that "he betrayed the Country Party. "
(See " Last Instructions to a Painter," 1. 157, note.)
1 62 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 64, 1. 32.
The allusion is to the assault upon Sir John
Coventry in December, 1670. Marvell gave the
following account of the affair in a private letter to
Mr. William Ramsden, written, apparently, in Feb
ruary, 1671. " Sir John Coventry, having moved for
an imposition on the playhouses, Sir John Birkenhead,
to excuse them, said they had been of great service to
the King. Upon which Sir John Coventry desired
that gentleman to explain whether he meant the men
or women players. Hereupon, it is imagined that,
the House adjourning from Tuesday before till Thurs
day after Christmas Day, on the very Tuesday night
of the adjournment, twenty-five of the Duke of Mon-
mouth's troop, and some few foot, laid in wait from
ten at night till two in the morning, by Suffolk Street,
and as he returned from the Cock, where he supped,
to his own house, they threw him down, and with a
knife cut off almost all the end of his nose ; but com
pany coming made them fearful to finish it, so they
marched off. Sir Thomas Sandys, lieutenant of the
troop, commanded the party ; and O'Bryan, the Earl
of Incbequin's son, was a principal actor. The Court
hereupon sometimes thought to carry it with a high
hand, and question Sir John for his words, and main
tain the action. Sometimes they flagged in their
counsels. However, the King commanded Sir
Thomas Clarges and Sir W. Pultney to release Wroth
and Lake, who were two of the actors, and taken.
But the night before the House met they surrounded
them again. The House being but sullen the next
day, the Court did not oppose adjourning for some
days longer, till it was filled. Then the House went
upon Coventry's business, and voted that they would go
upon nothing else whatever till they had passed a Bill,
as they did, for Sandys, O'Bryan, Berry, and Reeves
to come in by the i6th of February, or else be con
demned," with provisions to prevent their being par
doned by the King. Any such action in future was
made felony, and an attack on a Member was to be
punished by a year's imprisonment, treble damages,
and incapacity. Sir Thomas Sandys was the very
person sent to Clarges and Pultney. O'Bryan was con
cealed in Monmouth's lodgings, and Wroth and Lake
were bailed by order from the Attorney-General.
Marvell concludes : "The Court is at the highest pitch
of want and [? wanton] luxury, and the people full of
discontent." For further particulars see Pepys, and
Marvell's letters to the Corporation at Hull for January
and February, 1671. Sandys and O'Bryan did not
appear, and were accordingly attainted and outlawed.
P. 64, 1. 34.
Monmouth, Captain of the Guard.
P. 64, 1. 37-
The ordinary reading is " His ; this," &c.
P. 64, 1. 40.
The Duchess of Cleveland. Probably there is a
reference to Donna Olympia Maidalchina, sister-in-
1 64 ANDREW MARVELL.
law of Innocent X. She was celebrated for her
rapacity (Ranke's Popes y ed. Bohn, ii. 324).
P. 64, 1. 47.
A Committee of both Houses sat at Derby House
from 1644 to 1648, and was the governing council on
the side of the Parliament. " Derby-house designs "
would therefore mean republican or rebellious designs.
P. 64, 1. 48.
Pepys (May 5-8, 1668) says that Sir Robert Howard,
who pretended to all manner of arts and sciences, had
been made the subject of comedy, under the name of
" Sir Positive At-all. " ' ' Woodcock " was a synonym for
a simpleton ; but possibly there is also a reference to
Sir Thomas Woodcock, M. P. for Lewes, and Deputy-
Governor of Windsor Castle. In the Flagellum
Parliamentarium he is said to have had a pension of
200 a year.
P. 64, 1. 49.
Sir William Bucknell. Marvell wVote on Nov. 26,
1670 : "Those that took the Customs, &c. , at 600,000
are now struck off again, and Sir Robert Howard,
Bucknell, and the brewers, have them as formerly
ON BLOOD'S STEALING THE CROWN.
Colonel Blood stole the crown in 1671, a few
months after his daring seizure of the Duke of Ormond.
On Aug. 9 Marvell wrote, in a private letter:
" One Blood, outlawed for a plot to take Dublin
Castle, and who seized on the Duke of Ormond here
last year, and might have killed him, a most bold
and yet sober fellow, some months ago seized the
crown and sceptre in the Tower, took them away, and
if he had killed the keeper might have carried them
clear off. He, being taken, astonished the King and
Court with the generosity and wisdom of his answers.
He, and all his accomplices, for his sake, are dis
charged by the King, to the wonder of all." Blood
received back some forfeited Irish estates, worth $oo
a year, and was afterwards often to be seen in the
presence chamber. Evelyn says Blood stabbed the
keeper, though not mortally (Diary, May 10, 1671).
A Latin version of these lines will be found on p.
A POEM ON THE STATUE IN STOCKS-MARKET.
First printed as Marvell's by Thompson, from a
copy in the poet's writing. The piece is given in the
Poems on Affairs of State of 1689.
P. 66, 1. 3.
Sir Robert Viner purchased a statue of John
Sobieski trampling down the Turk, and, after the
necessary alterations, erected it in Stocks -Market on
the site of the present Mansion House as Charles II.
trampling on Cromwell. The following paragraph
166 ANDREW MARVELL.
from the London Gazette for May 27-30, 1672, enables
us to fix with accuracy the date of this poem :
" London, May 29. This day being the great
anniversary of His Majesty's birth, as well as of his
glorious Restoration, has been celebrated in this city
with all imaginable demonstrations of public joy ; and
to add to the solemnity of the day a new Conduit of
a noble and beautiful structure was opened (in the
Stocks Market-Place near Lumbard Street), plentifully
running claret for divers hours, adorned with an
excellent figure of his present Majesty on horseback,
having a Turk or enemy under foot. The figures all
of the best white Genoue marble, and bigger than the
life. The whole erected at the sole charge of Sir
Robert Viner, from whom His Majesty was pleased
to accept it some years since, although but now
finished, as a mark of the particular devotion that
worthy person is used to express on all occasions for
the honour of His Majesty's Royal person and
In April, 1675, Marvell referred to the scandal
about the marriage of Viner's daughter, and said that
if to this be added the fact that Viner lately tried to
subvert the liberties of the City, and then was terribly
involved by the stop of the Exchequer, "I do not
know a man more unfortunate or under less com
passion." At the beginning of 1676 the King owed
Viner ^416,724, and with a view of repaying the debt,
granted him ^"25,000 a year out of the duty on excise.
P. 66, 1. 4.
The stop of the Exchequer was on Jan. 2, 1672.
This act of national repudiation caused great loss to
P. 67, 1. 20.
Sir William Peake was Sheriff in 1660, and Lord
Mayor of London in 1667 (Orridge's Account of the
Citizens of London, 1867).
P. 68, 1. 38.
Cf. the " Dialogue between Two Horses;" 1. 129 :
" Mine to cuckold a scrivener's in masquerade."
Evelyn (Oct. 12, 1677) describes a visit he paid to the
Marden estate of Sir Robert Clayton, the "prodigious
rich scrivener." Lady Clayton was " very curious in
distillery." In 1672 Clayton had built a house "at
excessive cost " in the Old Jewry. He was afterwards
Lord Mayor, and gave many entertainments. Evelyn
calls him the " prince of citizens " (Nov. 18, 1679),
" there never having been any who, for the stateliness
of his palace, prodigious feasting, and magnificence,
exceeded him." He married a free-hearted woman,
who became his hospitable disposition. The friend
liness of the Royal party brought him much wealth,
and he was accused of hard dealing, but perhaps
without due cause.
P. 68, 1. 48.
Charles II. was born on May 29, 1630, and entered
London on May 29, 1660. On May 28, 1672, there
168 ANDREW MARVELL.
was a great and stubborn battle with the Dutch fleet
in Southwold Bay. The Earl of Sandwich and many
other officers were killed (see Evelyn's Diary, May
In 1672 a futile attack was made upon the Dutch
Smyrna fleet (see Evelyn, March 12, 1672, and
Marvell's "Account of the Growth of Popery and
Arbitrary Government," 1677).
AN HISTORICAL POEM.
The earliest version that we have of this poem is in
The Fourth (and Last) Collection of Poems, Satyrs,
Songs, etc., 1689, 4to. The poem was written after
Sept., 1673. (Seel. 140.)
P. 70, 1. 12.
Mrs. Palmer, afterwards Duchess of Cleveland.
P. 70, 1. 1 8.
The Duke of Gloucester, third brother to the King.
Pepys (Sept. 13, 1660) says he died of small-pox,
' ' by the great negligence of the doctors. " Evelyn calls
him "a prince of extraordinary hopes."
P. 71, 1. 19.
Instead of this and the following 15 lines, the 1689
version has :
" Bold York survives to be the nation's curse,
Resolved to ruin it by deceit or force."
P. 71, 1. 20.
Ann Hyde. * ' Falmouth " was Sir Charles Berkeley,
afterwards Lord Falmouth. See " Last Instructions
to a Painter," 11. 49 seq.
P. 71, 1. 33-
See " Last Instructions to a Painter," 1. 102.
P. 71, 1. 44.
Robert Carnegie, Earl of Southesk, married Anne,
daughter of William, Duke of Hamilton ; and Gram-
mont gives an account of the Duke of York's intrigue
with this lady. The husband planned a revenge, but
Grammont says that the Duke's connection with Lady
Southesk was broken off before there was time for
the plot to succeed. Burnet states that the Earl for
some years boasted of his success, but afterwards
denied the whole story to some of his friends.
P. 72, 1. 52.
See Pepys's Diary, July and August, 1665.
P. 72, 1. 59.
Evelyn (June 10, 1673), savs "We went after
dinner to see the formal and formidable camp at
Blackheath, raised to invade Holland, or, as others
suspected, for another design." Marvell (" Growth of
Popery," 1677) speaks of " the dark hovering of the
army so long at Blackheath," which seemed "the
gatherings of a storm to fall upon London " ; but the
ill successes at sea were sufficient, if there had been
any design at home, to have quashed it.
1 70 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 72, 1. 64.
"Spintrian," obscene. Sir Thomas Browne, in
the "Religio Medici," speaks of Nero in his spin-
trian recreations. See Suetonius, Vit. Tiber, c.
43, and Tacitus, Ann., vi. I : "Tuncque primum
ignota ante vocabula reperta sunt, sellariorum et
spintriarunij ex foeditate loci ac multiplici patientia."
P. 72, 1. 69.
The King's sister, the Duchess of Orleans, a woman
of great intrigue, was sent to England by Louis XIV.
in 1670, to negotiate a secret treaty with Charles II.
She and her brother met at Dover. When she
returned to France, the Duke of Orleans, who had
received very strange accounts of her behaviour in
England, ordered, it was said, a great dose of sub
limate to be given her in a glass of succory water, of
which she died in torment. This rumour, however,
is untrue. (See Madame La Fayette's Histoire cTHen-
riette cTAngleterre, ed. by Anatole France, 1882.
Introduction, pp. 71-82. ) The Duchess seems to have
died of peritonitis.
P. 73, 1. 87.
A game in which one person gives a word, and
another has to find a rhyme to it.
P. 73, 1. 88.
Thomas Killigrew, jester and dramatist. He was
gentleman page. to Charles I., and a groom of the
bedchamber to Charles II.
P. 74,1. 113.
Lauderdale and Archbishop Sharp devoted them
selves to establishing the pretensions of the Crown and
Established Church in Scotland. Lauderdale was him
self a renegade Covenanter. The Scotch Parliament
was dissolved in 1662, and its powers taken over by
the Privy Council, which passed an Act ordering all
who held livings to be ordained in compliance with
the requirements of the Episcopal Church. All the
members of the Council, with one exception, are said
to have been drunk when this Act was passed. Other
harsh measures followed, and 390 ministers were
ejected. In 1667 Lauderdale became one of the
Cabal ministry, and he remained in office when his
colleagues resigned upon the passing of the Test Act
in 1673. Lauderdale was supported by Sir Thomas
Osborne and the Duke of York. The persecutions in
Scotland led, the year after Marvell's death, to the
murder of Sharp, and the defeat of the Covenanters
at Both well Bridge. Lauderdale died in 1682.
Clarendon says he was qualified for, and practised
in, the darkest intrigues ; and Burnet dwells upon
his haughtiness, passion, and sensuality. He was
very big, had red hair, and was rough and boisterous
in his behaviour. In a private letter dated March 21,
1670, Marvell said that "many talked that he de
served an halter rather than a garter."
P. 75, 1- 136.
Arabella Churchill was the Duke of York's mistress.
172 ANDREW MARVELL.
Her brother John, afterwards Duke of Marlborough,
began life as page of honour to the Duke.
P. 75. I- 137-
Dr. Grosart reads "Danby," but the poem was
written (see 1. 142) before Osborne became Lord
Danby. The 1689 version of the poem has " P ,"
the 1703 edition of the State Poems "D ." The
word " calls " is not found in either of these versions,
but some such word is needed.
P. 75, I- 140.
Lord Clifford died in Sept., 1673, as it was
reported, by his own hand. Evelyn gives an interest
ing account of a conversation with Clifford shortly
before his death.
P. 75, 1- 142.
Sir Thomas Osborne was not made Earl of Danby
until June, 1674. The State Poems of 1689 and 1703
both have " O ne."
P. 76, 1. 178.
Cf. I Samuel viii.
ADVICE TO A PAINTER.
This poem was published as a folio sheet of 4 pp.,
with the title " Advice to a Painter, &c.," n. p. or
d. Writing on July 7-17, 1679, Viscount Halifax told
Henry Savile, "here is lately come out in print, amongst
other libels, an 'Advice to a Painter,' which was
written some years since and went about, but now by
the liberty of the press is made public, which, for
many reasons, I am sorry for" (Savile Correspon
dence, p. 107). There seems little doubt that this
edition of 1679 was tne undated version to which
reference has just been made ; Lord Halifax's words
imply that the piece had passed from hand to hand
in manuscript only during MarvelPs lifetime. The
poem was evidently written at the end of the year
1673, an d refers to the No Popery agitation of that
time, which produced the Test Act, and the resigna
tion of the Duke of York and Clifford (Masson's
Milton, vi. 593-7 ; Burnet). The piece was, as we
have seen, reprinted during the excitement caused
by the Popish Plot of 1678-9, but lines 67-74 formed
no part of that version, and may have been added
in or about 1687 (see further note below). The
appearance of the poem in 1679 called forth two
anonymous and undated pieces, "New Advice to
a Painter" and " Second Advice to the Painter,"
each dealing with the Popish Plot. It should be
added that Aubrey said of Marvell, ' ' The verses
called * The Advice to the Painter ' were of his
making." I have indicated the principal points in
which the first-known (or 1679) version differs from
that given in the 1689 and 1703 editions of the
P. 77, I- 3-
Council. " Triumph " (1689 and 1703).
174 ANDREW MAR FELL.
P. 77, 1. 4-
Abjuring. "Abhorring " (1689 and 1703).
P. 77, 1. 6.
His. " Their " (1703). -Its. " Their " (1703).
This line is omitted in the 1689 version.
P. 77, 1. 7-
" First draw him falling," &c. (original version).
P. 77, 1. 8.
Label. "Libel" (original version); "with this
speech in" (1689).
P. 77, 1. 10.
For Father Patrick, see " The Dispute, by the Earl
of R[ocheste]r, 1673," in " A Third Collection of
Poems, &c., against Popery and Tyranny," 1689.
Evelyn met him at the Lord Treasurer's table.
" Darby." So in the original version, and in the
MS. notes to the copy of the 1689 edition of the State
Poems in the British Museum. The only person of
that name of whom anything seems to be known was
John Darby, a London printer (Nichols' Literary
Anecdotes, viii. 367). It was he who, with his wife,
deposed to Marvell's authorship of the " Rehearsal
Transposed," in Jan., 1673 (Coventry Papers in the
Marquis of Bath's Collection; Hist. MSS. Com
mission, Fourth .Report, p. 234). This can hardly
be the person referred to by Marvell. Dr. Grosart,
following the 1703 edition, reads " Danby," but
points out difficulties, notably that Osborne did not
become Earl of Danby until June, 1674 ; whereas
this poem must have been written before then. This
difficulty, however, is not fatal, because the poem
was not printed until long after 1674, and Marvell
may have originally written " Osborne." Mr. C. D.
Christie suggested that for "Danby" or "Darby"
should be substituted "Talbot."
P. 77, I- 13-
" I swear not fire " (original version).
P. 77, 1. IS;
" Armed with bold zeal " (original version).
P. 77, 1. 16.
" I '11 raise my Papists, and my Irish bands " (1689
P. 77, 1. 17.
The plot to encourage Popery, which was sup
posed to have given rise to the Declaration of
Indulgence early in 1673. The Nonconformists
joined with the Church of England in opposing
toleration towards Papists.
P. 77, 1. 18.
Col. Fitzgerald, Deputy Governor of Tangiers ;
and Col. John Scott (Pepys).
176 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 77, 1. 19-
"Have." So in the original version and 1689
edition of State Poems ; altered to "make" in 1703
P. 77, I- 22.
" Liberty " (1689 and 1703).
P. 78, 1. 24.
The 1689 edition gives*' Parliaments, precedents,"
but the 1703 edition agrees with the original version.
And. " Their" (original version).
P. 78, 1. 25.
E'er. " Men " (original version).
P. 78, 1. 27.
" It is our birthright ; we," &c. (original version).
P. 78, 1. 28.
"Shall they e'er dare to think they shall decide"
(1689 and 1703).
P. 78, 1. 30.
These. "They " (1689 and 1703).
P. 78, 31-
This line appears for the first time in 1703.
P. 78, 1. 32.
" Or that there is" (original version).
P. 78, 1. 36.
" And I do say it " (1689 and 1703).
P. 78, 1. 37-
The Earl of Peterborough brought over the
Princess Mary Beatrix d'Este, James's second wife.
The marriage took place in Nov., 1673, an ^
" the nation was much troubled at it " (Reresby).
P. 78, 1. 40.
The actual conversion of Henry Mordaunt, Earl of
Peterborough, does not appear to have taken place,
or at any rate was not announced, before 1687. (See
Macaulay's History p , chap, vii.)
P. 78, 1. 42-
Envenomed. " Ronound " (original version).
P. 78, 1. 45-
The 1679 version has "C ," that of 1689
"Ch -," filled in, in the British Museum copy, as
" Churchill." The reference may be to Carteret (see
" Last Instructions," 11. 203-4, notes), or, more
probably, to Sir Winston Churchill, M.P. (died 1688),
father of the first Duke of Marlborough, and described
in the Flagellum Parliamentarium as a pimp to
his own daughter, Arabella Churchill.
P. 78, 1. 46.
" Laid up in store for a new set," &c. (1689 and
P. 78, 1. 47.
Some. " A " (1689 and 1703).
P. 7 8, 1. 48.
This. " Such " (1689 and 1703).
178 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 79, 1. 50.
Some. "A "(1689 and 1703).
P. 79, 1. 52.
Lazy. " Longer " (original version).
P. 79, 1. S3-
"Than in false hopes of being once" (original
P. 79, 1. 54.
" Ere twenty die, and " (1689 and 1703).
P. 79, I- 57-
It was Clifford who, in Jan., 1672, suggested
the seizing of the money in the Exchequer. This
expedient brought the King a large supply of money,
and in the following April Clifford was raised to
the peerage, and, in November, became Lord High
Treasurer. Both Clifford and the Duke of York
resigned office upon the passing of the Test Act.
P, 79, I- 58.
"Was always thought too gentle, meek, and wise"
(i 689 and 1703).
P. 79, 1. 61.
Each. " Both " (1689 and 1703).
P. 79, 1. 63.
Boiling. * ' Broiling " (i 703).
P. 79, 1. 66.
By. " In " (original version).
" Irish Talbot, and old " (1689).
P. 79, 1. 67.
Richard Talbot, afterwards Earl and Duke of
Tyrconnel, was, says Clarendon, a very handsome
young man, with courage and wickedness enough for
anything. He was one of the Duke of York's con
fidants, and became Commander-in-Chief in Ireland
in 1685, and Lord-Deputy early in 1687. This
character (11. 67-74) is not i n the original version, and
may therefore have been added to Marvell's poem
about 1687 ; but it is more probable that the lines
were written in 1673, f r on March 25 of that year,
after long debates, the Commons prayed, in an Address
to the King, "That Col. Richard Talbot, who hath
notoriously assumed to himself the title of Agent of
the Roman Catholics in Ireland, be immediately dis
missed out of all command, either civil or military,
and forbid an access to your Majesty's Court " (Grey's
Debates, ii., no, 118, 121, 126-7, l6l ) Talbot had
served the King in the rebellion in Ireland.
Titus Gates alleged that the Pope had declared that
England was his kingdom, and that he had appointed
Lord Arundel of Wardour Chancellor. Lord Arun-
del conducted the preliminary negotiations which led
to the secret treaty of 1670. Charges were brought
against him by Gates, but he was released in 1684,
and became Keeper of the Privy Seal in 1687.
" Nuncio " is, of course, here used in the general
sense of envoy or representative. The Pope's
nuncio (Adda) did not arrive until May, 1687.
i8o ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 79, 1. 77-
Espy. " Descry " (original version).
P. 80, 1. 79-
John, Lord Belasyse (1614-1689), son of Thomas,
first Lord Fauconberg, was made Governor of Hull
and Lord Lieutenant of the East Riding after the
Restoration. Afterwards he became Governor of
Tangiers, but resigned when required to take the
oath of conformity. In 1678 he was impeached upon
information given by Gates, but was never brought
to trial. In 1687 he was made First Lord of the
Treasury by James II.
P. 80, 1. 82.
* And so shall we, when his advice's" (1689).
P. 80, 1. 83.
The. "His "(1703).
P. 80, 1. 85.
"And now his daughter he hath got" (1689 and
The reference is, perhaps, to Lady Belasyse, widow
of Lord Belasyse's son, Sir Henry Belasyse (who had
been killed in a duel by Tom Porter in 1667). When
the Duke of York resolved to marry a second time
he thought of this lady as a wife, and, after promising
her marriage, sent Coleman to endeavour to convert
her to Popery. The effort failed, and Lord Belasyse,
anxious to show his loyalty, told Charles II. of what
was proposed. Lady Belasyse was ultimately induced
to give up the promise of marriage (Oldmixon's
History of England, i. 573).
P. 80, 1. 88.
Lady Castlemaine's favourite, who, it had been
supposed, would marry Lady Falmouth. " The King
is mad at her entertaining Jermyn, and she is mad as
Jermyn's going to marry from her; so they are all
mad ; and thus the kingdom is governed ! " (Pepys,
July 29, 1667). Henry Jermyn, now Earl of Dover,
became one of the Treasury board in 1687.
Fitzgerald ; Scott. See 1. 18.
Charles Porter. See "Last Instructions," 1. 101.
P. 80, 1. 91.
Can. " Shall " (1689 and 1703).
P. 80, 1. 96.
Heads. " Men " (1689 and 1703).
P. 80, 1. 98.
"At last to madmen, fools, and to" (1689 and
P. 80, 1. 99.
Thy. " This " (1689) ; " The " (1703).
P. 80, 1. loo.
Traitors hang. " Strangers hanged " (1703).
TO THE KING.
P. 81, 1. i.
"Might'st" is from the 1710 edition. The earlier
versions have " would'st."
182 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 81, 1. 3-
On thy. " Of this " (1689) ; " Of thy " (1703).
P. 81, 1. 4.
Thy. " Thine " (1689 and 1703).
P. 81, 1. 8.
And. " That " (1689 and 1703).
P. 81, 1. 9.
A. "One "(1689 and 1703).
P. 81, 1. 10.
Your. " Thy " ( 1 689 and 1 703).
P. 8i,l. II.
" By nature should be " (1689 and 1703).
P. 81, 1. 12.
TQ a. " A too " (1689 and 1703).
P. 81, 1. 13-
By. ' ' With " ( 1 689 and 1 703).
P. 8l, 1. 14.
There's no more. "Harbours no" (1689 and
BRITANNIA AND RALEIGH.
Written at the end of 1673 or early in 1674. The
first version we have is that in the State Poems of
1689, where the poem is attributed to "A. M."
P. 82, 1. 3.
Lord Cobhani and George Brooke were accused of
having said that " there never would be a good world
in England till the King and his cubs were taken
away"; and Raleigh was one of the "plotters."
P. 83, 1. 17.
Sir Thomas Lee, M.P. for Aylesbury, and William
Garroway, M.P. for Chichester and afterwards for
Arundel, were suspected of being bribed by Lord
Danby. In 1673, when the King desired 1, 200,000
for carrying on the war, the members opposed to the
Court resolved to give only ^600,000, and selected
Garroway and Lee to name this sum ; but when the
House met next day, Garroway named ,1,200,000,
and was seconded by Lee. The other members were
taken by surprise, and the fuller amount was granted.
"They had good rewards from the Court; and yet
they continued still voting on the other side," says
Burnet of these two members. Some years earlier Sir
William Coventry admitted that Garroway's discon
tent was natural, considering all he had suffered for
the King, and the way he had been used ; he was a
man who ought to be bought over (Pepys, Oct. 6,
1666). The writer of " Oceana and Britannia "
(which has usually been printed among Marveil's
poems) speaks of " the disguised Papists under Garro
way," and of " greedy Lee," who " led party-coloured
P. 83, 1. 18.
Sir Thomas Osborne, created Baron Osborne, Aug.,
1673; Earl of Danby, June, 1674; Marquis of
1 84 ANDREW MARVELL.
Carmarthen, April, 1689 ; and Duke of Leeds, May,
P. 83, I. 19.
John Maitland, second Earl of Lauderdale (1616-
1682) ; created Duke of Lauderdale in 1672, and Earl
of Guildford (in the English peerage) in 1674. See
" An Historical Poem," p. 74-
P. 83,1. 20.
See "Farther Instructions to a Painter, "p. 64.
The plague of frogs (Exod. viii).
P. 8 3 ,1. 32.
A sneer at Hobbes. See another allusion below.
P. 84, 1. 54.
Well. *'* Full " in 1 703 edition.
P. 84, 1. 60.
A personification of France, or Despotism. There
may also be an allusion to Henrietta, Duchess of
Orleans, King Charles's sister, who, attended by Mdlle.
de Keroualle and others, met Charles at Dover in May,
1670, when secret and public treaties with France
P. 85, 1. 82.
The 1689 edition reads,
" If not o'erawed : This new-found holy cheat,
Those pious frauds," &c.
P. .-86, 1. 119.
Sidney, in the " Arcadia," says that effeminate love
of a woman leads a man to be a " distaff, a spinner,
or whatsoever vile occupation their idle heads can
imagine, and their weak hands perform. "
P. 86, 1. 122.
The popular form of the name of Louise de
Keroualle, whom Charles created Duchess of
P. 86, 1. 123.
Osborne was made Lord Treasurer in June, 1673.
P. 86, 1. 124.
Sir Heneage Finch was made Lord Keeper in Nov. ,
1673. See " Last Instructions," 1. 186, note.
Arthur Annesley, Viscount Valentia, created Earl
of Anglesey in 1661. He was made Lord Privy Seal
on April 22, 1673, but was dismissed in 1682 for
publishing reflections on the King.
P. 87, 1. 127.
" Scotch-scalado." This word has a double sense :
(i) one who has worked his way up; (2) one who is
suffering from skin disease.
Pp. 87-8, 11. 141-2, 153-4.
These lines are not in the 1689 edition.
P. 88, I. 170.
The Duchess of Cleveland.
The Hon. Peregrine Bertie, second son of the Earl of
186 ANDREW MARVELL.
Lindsey. He was M.P. for Stamford, and Osborne's
brother-in-law. He had a pension and a troop of
horse (Flagellum Parliamentarian).
P. 89, 1. 194.
This is the reading of the 1689 edition. In the
version of the poem printed in Gildon's Poetical
Remains of the Duke of Buckingham, &c., 1698, we
find, " No poisonous monarch on thy earth shall live ";
and in the State Poems > " No poisoned tyrants," &c.
ON THE LORD MAYOR AND COURT OF ALDERMEN
PRESENTING THE KING AND DUKE OF YORK EACH
WITH A COPY OF HIS FREEDOM, ANNO DOM. 1674.
The King accepted the freedom of the City at a
banquet on Oct. 29, 1674. These lines appear in the
Second Part of the State Poems of 1689.
P. 90, 1. 3.
To have a maggot in one's brain is to be whim
sical or foolish ; and the freedom of the City in the
gold box is here compared to a maggot in a box or
' ' By the Lord Mayor and his grave coxcombs,
Freeman of London Charles is made ;
Then to Whitehall a rich gold box comes,
Which was bestowed on the French jade."
(Lord Rochester's History of Insipids.}
P. 92, 1. 56.
The Earl of Shaftesbury was deprived of the great
seal as Lord Chancellor on Nov. 9, 1673, after he had
opposed the marriage of the Duke of York with the
Duchess of Modena ; and after refusing bribes from
the King, who was soon anxious that he should
resume office, he placed himself at the head of the
party opposed to the French influence (Christie's Life
of Shaftesbury , 1871, ii. 179-185).
P. 93, I- 65.
Chamberlain of London, and M.P. for the City
from 1679 to 1681. See Pepys, March 14, 1666,
and " Absalom and Achitophel," Part II., when Tate
calls him (under the name of ' ' Rabsheka "),
" A saint than can both flesh and spirit use,
Alike haunt conventicles, and the stews."
P. 93, 1. 84.
Perhaps we should read " gizzard of starling " ;
i.e., the straw upon which the ants swarm is too
P. 94, 1. 105.
Sir Robert Viner, Bart., was Lord Mayor in 1674-5.
There is an allusion to Whittington and Bow Bells.
Michael Nostradamus, physician and astrologer,
was born in 1503. A translation of his "Prophecies"
iSS ANDREW MARVELL.
was published in 1672 (London Gazette, Aug. 29
Sept. 2, 1672). These verses are given in the
State Poems of 1689.
P. 95, 1. 4.
The Great Fire began in Pudding Lane. The
Papists, of whom the Duke of York was the most
prominent member, were accused of setting fire to
P. 95, 1. 16.
Reflecting on the King for taking Nell Gwyn and
others from the stage.
P. 96, 1. 34-
The allusion may be to the outcry against Popery
in 1675, when Danby, supported by the Bishops,
brought in a Bill extending the Obedience oath to all
officers of state, privy councillors, and members of
both Houses of Parliament.
THE STATUE AT CHARING CROSS.
Printed by Thompson from a copy in Marvell's
writing. The piece was given in the third volume of
the State Poems.
P. 98, 1. 2.
" For more pageantry, the old King's statue on
horseback, of brass, was bought, and to be set up at
Charing Cross, which hath been doing longer than
Viner's, but does not yet see the light " (Marvell
to William Ramsden, Esq., July 24, 1675).
P. 98, 1. 3-
Wheler is mentioned in the " Chequer Inn " (1675),
a poem given in Thompson's edition of Marvell's
works. Sir William Wheler, formerly M.P. for
Westbury, was created a baronet in 1660, with re
mainder to his cousin Charles Wheler, who succeeded
him on his death in 1666. Sir Charles Wheler, here
referred to, became M.P. for Cambridge University
in 1667, and died in 1683. He was Colonel of the
Seventh Regiment of Foot, and Governor of the
Leeward Islands, and is called a " Privy Chamber
man " in the Flagellum Parliamentarism.
P. 99, I- 35-
Parliament was prorogued from Nov., 1674, to
April, 1675 5 an( * again from June, 1675, to the
A DIALOGUE BETWEEN TWO HORSES.
Written between the issue of the proclamation
closing London Coffee Houses (Nov. 26, 1675), and
its revocation on Jan. 8, 1676. The poem is attributed
to "A. M 1, Esq.,' in the "Second Part of the
Collection of Poems on Affairs of State," 1689.
P. 102, 1. 24.
The 1689 edition reads, "Of a dialogue lately
between the two horses."
190 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 102, 1. 25.
The statue at Charing-Cross was erected by
Lord Danby ; that at Wool-Church by Sir Robert
Viner. (See the poems on pages 66, 98.)
P. 102, 1. 29.
" Could Robin Viner have foreseen
The glorious triumphs of his Master,
The Wool-Church statue gold had been,
Which now is made of alabaster ;
But wise men think, had it been wood,
"Twere for a bankrupt king too good.
" Those that the fabric well consider
Do of it diversely discourse \
Some pay their censure of the rider,
Others their judgment of the horse ;
Most say the steed's a goodly thing,
But all agree 'tis a lewd king."
(LORD ROCHESTER'S History of Itisipids.
P. 102, 1. 37.
Alluding to the failure of the bankers.
P. 102, 1. 39.
From " The Statue at Charing-Cross," St. viii.,
it would appear that Danby and Viner were brothers-
in-law, but this was not the case.
P. 103, 1. 49.
" Word." Dr. Grosart substitutes "jot," the read
ing of the 1710 edition.
P. 104, 1. 58.
The Exchequer was shut up on Jan. 2, 1672.
P. 104, 1. 59.
The sign marked on a house attacked by the
P. 104, 1. 67.
Alluding to the burning of the British ships in the
Medway by the Dutch.
P. 105, 1. 75.
Sir William Stanley was accused of participating
in the Perkin Warbeck conspiracy, and beheaded in
1495. He saved Henry VII. 's life at Bosworth ; but
it was his brother, Lord Stanley, who placed the
crown on the King's head. There is probably an under
reference to Argyll, who placed the crown on
Charles's head at Scone in 1651, and who exclaimed
when he was condemned in 1660, and denied ten
days' respite, " I placed the crown upon his head,
and this is my reward " (Grosart).
P. 106, 1. 99.
In 1660 coffee was taxed at fourpence a gallon ;
chocolate, sherbet, and tea at eightpence. In 1671
the tax on coffee was reduced to twopence.
P. 106, 1. 101.
Parliament was prorogued in Nov., 1675. The
Commons, after saying that the King ought to have
had a surplus, and not a deficit, voted ;3OO,ooo for
the improvement of the navy.
P. 107, 1. 105.
In Feb., 1674, peace was made with the Dutch,
and in 1675 meetings were held at Cologne and
192 ANDREW MARVELL.
Nimeguen, to bring about peace between the Dutch
and French. Sir William Temple was present on
P. 107, 1. 106.
"This is the first night that the Duchess Mazarine
appears at our Court " (Marvell to Mr. Edward
Thompson, York, Dec. 8, 1675). She was the
niece of Cardinal Mazarine. Writing upon her
death, in June, 1699, Evelyn says she " was an
extraordinary beauty and wit, but dissolute and
impatient of matrimonial restraint, so as to be
abandoned by her husband, and banished, when she
came into England for shelter, lived on a pension
given her here, and is reported to have hastened her
death by intemperate drinking of strong spirits. " In
another place he describes the scene of dissoluteness
and profaneness he saw at Court on Sunday evening,
where Charles II. sat and toyed with his concubines,
Portsmouth, Cleveland, and Mazarine. Next day
the King had a fit, and he died on the following
Friday. Full particulars of the lives of the Duchess
Mazarine and her rivals- will be found in Forneron's
Life of Louise de Keroualle. Louise de Keroualle
(or Querouaille) was maid of honour to Henrietta,
Duchess of Orleans, Charles's sister, when that lady
was sent over by Louis XIV. in 1670 to negotiate a
secret treaty. Louise de Keroualle became the King's
mistress in Oct., 1671, after a mock marriage at
Euston, Lord Arlington's house, and in 1673 was
made Duchess of Portsmouth. She was the first
" French whore," and she had, as Marvell says, made
the King poor.
P. 107, 1. 108.
The eight lines following are not in the 1689
edition of the Poems on Affairs of State.
Evelyn (Jan. 9, 1662) mentions an actress becoming
the Earl of Oxford's miss, "as at this time they
began to call lewd women."
P. 107, 1. 1 10.
Cf. Defoe's " True-born Englishman" :
" Six bastard dukes survive his luscious reign,
The labours of Italian Castlemaine,
French Portsmouth, Tabby Scott, and Cambrian ;
Besides the numerous bright and virgin throng
Whose female glories shade them from my song.
This offspring, if our age they multiply,
May half the House with English peers supply :
There with true English pride they may contemn
Schomberg and Portland, new-made noblemen.
French cooks, Scotch pedlars, and Italian whores
Were all made lords or lords' progenitors.
Beggars and bastards by this new creation
Much multiplied the peerage of the nation;
Who will be all, ere one short age runs o'er,
As tri>e-born lords as those we had before."
P. 108, 1. 129.
See " A Poem on the Statue in Stocks-Market,''
I 9 4 ANDREW MARVELL.
P. 1 10, 11. 157-9.
When Thomas Hollis presented a portrait of Crom
well to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1765,
he is said, according to some accounts, to have sent
these three lines with it. See Noble's House of
Cromwell (1787), i. 304.
P. no, 1. 171.
Sir Joseph Williamson, President of the Royal
Society. He started the Oxford Gazette ; and was
Secretary of State from 1674 to 1678.
P. 1 10, 1. 173.
The Earl of Arlington, to whom Sir Joseph William
son had been secretary (Evelyn, Dec. 2, 1666).
P. in, 1. 174.
Henry Coventry, who was Secretary from 1672 to
P. ill, 1. 186.
The oracle, it was said, declared in favour of the
P. 112, 1. 98.
Wine and beer were taxed in 1661, and still more
P. 112, 1. 202.
A proclamation was issued on Nov. 29, 1675,
closing the coffee-houses, on the ground that dis
affected persons met in them, and circulated reports
to the defamation of the Government, and disturbance
of the quiet and peace of the realm.
BLUDIUS ET CORONA.
First printed by Thompson. For the English ver
sion of these lines see p. 65.
First printed by Thompson.
P. H4, 1- 3-
James Mitchell, a preacher, endeavoured to kill
Archbishop Sharp, when driving in his coach with
the Bishop of Orkney, on July n, 1668. He
escaped, but was arrested in 1674, and imprisoned.
Four years later he was put to the torture, sentenced
to death, and hanged at Edinburgh, on Jan. 18,
1678. (Wodrow.) Archbishop Sharp was assas
sinated in the following year, on May 3, 1679.
P. 59, 1. 88.
The reference is to Dr. John Leslie, Bishop of
Orkney, who, upon his translation to Raphoe in 1633,
built a palace so strongly fortified that it long resisted
Cromwell's arms. After the Restoration, Leslie
became Bishop of Clogher. He died in 1671.
THE Satires given in this Appendix are either falsely
attributed to Marvell, or are of doubtful authenticity ;
but as some at least of them have been generally
associated with his name, and as they illustrate the
genuine poems, they are here reprinted, but with few
comments, save the information that follows respecting
their history. Some information respecting most of
the persons referred to can be found, by aid of the
Index, in the Notes to the pieces already given.
Five of the Satires given below are included in the
State Poems of 1703, two of them having already
appeared in 1689; "Hodge's Vision" or rather a
part of it in A Collection of Poems on Affairs of
State, and " Oceana and Britannia" in The Fourth
(and last) Collection of Poems, Satyrs, Songs, &c.
The remaining piece " The Doctor turned Justice "
was printed by Captain Thompson from a manuscript
commonplace book. It would seem impossible, how
ever, that " Royal Resolutions " is Marvell's because,
among other reasons, of the allusion (st. iv.) to the
sending away of the Duke of York, which did not occur
until 1679, during the excitement of the Popish Plot.
200 ANDREW MARVELL.
"Hodge's Vision" is full of allusions to the same
plot, and has a reference to Sir James Edwards, who
became Lord Mayor only in November, 1678;
while "Oceana and Britannia" relates to events
that took place between 1679 a ^d 1681. The
remaining pieces do not come up to the standard of
Marvell's work, and in none of these cases does
Thompson say that the copies in the commonplace
book which he used were in Marvell's handwriting.
UPON THE CUTTING OF SIR JOHN
I SING a woeful ditty
Of a wound that long will smart-a ;
And given (more is the pity)
In the realm of Magna Charta.
Youth, youth, thou hadst better been slain by the foes,
Than live to be hanged for cutting a nose.
Our great King, Charles the Second,
So flippant of treasure and moisture,
Stooped from his Queen infecund
To a wench of orange and oyster ; 10
And for sweet variety, thought it expedient
To ingender Don Johns on Nell the comedian.
The lecherous vainglory
Of being loined by a Majesty,
Mounted up to such a story
This bitchinton travesty,
That to equal her lover, this baggage must dare
To be Helen the second, the cause of a war.
202 ANDREW MARVELL.
And he our amorous Jove,
While she lay dry b under, 20
To repair the defects of his love,
Did lend her his lightning and thunder ;
And for one night prostitutes to her commands
His Monmouth, his life-guard, O'Bryan, and Sandys.
And now the romance of the French,
And now the need of a Navy,
Was dwindled all to a wench,
And amo, amas, amavi.
Nay, farewell the subsidies, so she may cloven-try
In a female revenge the nostrils of Coventry. 30
O ye Haymarket hectors,
How were you thus charmed,
To turn the base dissectors
Of one poor nose unarmed ?
Unfit to wear sword, or follow the trumpet,
That would brandish a knife at the word of a strumpet.
But was it not ungrateful
In Monmouth and Carlo,
To contrive a thing so hateful,
The sons of Mary and Barlo ; 40
And since the kind world dispensed with their mothers,
Might they not well have spared the noses of others ?
JOHN CO VENTR Y. 203
Beware now, ye Parliamenteers,
How each of his tongue disposes ;
Bab May in the Commons, Charles Rex in the Peers,
Sit telling your fates by your noses ;
And predestine at mention of every slut
Which nose shall continue, and which shall be cut.
But if the sister of Rose
Be an whore so anointed, 50
That thus the Parliament's nose
Must for her be disjointed ;
When you once come to name the prerogative whore,
How the bullets will whistle, and cannons will roar !
THE CHEQUER INN.
I'LL tell thee, Dick, where I have been,
Where I the Parliament have seen,
The choice of ale and beer :
But such a choice as ne'er was found
In any age on English ground,
In borough or in shire.
At Charing Cross, hard by the way
Where all the Berties make their hay,
There stands a house new painted ;
Where I could see 'em crowding in, 10
But sure they often there had been,
They seemed so well acquainted.
The host that dwells in that same house
Is now a man, that was a mouse,
Till he was burgess chosen :
And for his country first began,
But quickly turned cat in pan,
(The way they all have rosen.)
The CJiequer Inn the Exchequer.
THE CHEQUER INN. 205
And ever since he did so wax,
That now he money tells by pecks, 2C
And heaps up all our treasure.
Thou'lt ken him out by his white wand
He dandles always in his hand,
With which he strikes the measure.
But though he now do look so big,
And bear himself on such a twig,
'T will fail him in a year.
Then oh, how I could claw him off,
For all his slender quarter-staff,
And have him here and there. 30
He is as stiff as any stake,
And leaner, Dick, than any rake ;
Envy is not so pale.
And though by selling of us all
He's wrought himself into Whitehall,
He looks like bird of jail ;
And there he might ere now have laid,
Had not the members most been made,
For some had him indicted.
But whosoe'er that 'peach him durst, 40
To clear him would have been the first,
Had they too been requited.
206 ANDREW MARVELL.
But he had men enough to spare,
Besides a good friend in the chair,
Though all men blushed that heard it.
And, for I needs must speak my mind,
They all deserved to have been fined
For such a shameful verdict.
And now they marched all tag and rag,
Each of his handiwork to brag, 50
Over a gallant supper ;
On backside of their letters some
For sureness cited were to come ;
The rest were bid by Cooper.
They stood, when entered in the hall,
Mannerly reared against the wall,
Till to sit down desired.
And simpered, justly to compare,
Like maidens at a statute fair,
(None went away unhired). 60
The lady, dressed like any bride,
Her forehead cloth had laid aside,
And smiling, through did sail ;
Though they had dirtied so the room,
That she was forced to call for groom
To carry up her tail.
44. Sir Edward Seymour, the Speaker.
THE CHEQUER INN. 207
Wheler at board then next her set,
And if it had been rearer yet,
She might it well afford ;
For ev'n at bed the time has been 70
When no one could see sun between
His lady and her lord.
This knight was sent t' America,
And was as soon sent for away,
Though not for his good deeds ;
And since the soil whither he went
Would not bear his wild government,
Here now he plants the seeds.
And next him sat George Montague,
The foreman of the British crew, 80
(His cup he never fails) ;
Mansell and Morgan, and the rest,
All of them of the grand inquest,
A jury right of Wales.
79. George Montague was the fifth son of Henry, Earl of
Manchester, and was M.P. for Dover. His son became the
first Earl of Halifax.
82. Probably Sir Edward Mansell, Bart., M.P. for
Glamorganshire, and William Morgan, M.P. for Monmouth
208 ANDREW MARVELL.
Wild with his tongue did all outrun,
And popping like an elder-gun,
Both words and meat did utter.
The pellets which his chops did dart,
Fed all his neighbours overthwart,
That gaped to hear him sputter. 90
But King, God save him, though so crammed,
The cheer into his breeches rammed,
That buttery were and larder.
And of more provender to dispose,
Had sewed on too his double hose ;
For times, thou know'st, grow harder.
Holt, out of linen, as of land,
Had mortgaged of his two one band,
To have the other washed ;
And though his sweat the while he ate, 100
With his own gravy filled the plate,
That band with sauce too splashed.
His brain and face Tredenham wrung,
For words not to be said but sung ;
His neck, it turned on wire.
And Berkenhead, of all the rout,
There was but one could be found out
To be a greater liar.
97. Perhaps Sir Robert Holt, Bart, M.P. for Warwickshire.
103. Joseph Tredenham, M.P. for St. Mawes.
THE CHEQUER INN. 209
Old Hoby's brother, Cheyney, there,
Throgmorton, Neville, Doleman, were, no
And Lawley, knight of Shropshire.
Nay, Portman, though all men cried shame,
And Cholmondeley of Vale Royal came
For something more than chop-cheer.
The western glory, Harry Ford,
The landlord Bales out-eat, out-roared,
And did his trencher lick.
What pity 'tis a wit so great
Should live to sell himself for meat :
But who can help it y Dick ? 120
Yet, wot'st thou, he was none of those,
But would as well as meat have clothes,
Before he'd sell the nation ;
And wisely lodging at next door,
Was served more often than the poor,
With his whole generation.
109. Peregine Hoby and Charles Cheyne were the two
Members for Great Marlow.
no. Richard Neville, M.P. for Berkshire.
in. Sir Francis Lawley, Bart., M.P.
112. Sir William Portman, Bart., M.P. for Taunton.
113. Sir Thomas Cholmondeley, M.P. for Cheshire.
115. Sir Henry Ford, M.P. for Tiverton.
1 16. Tom Bales, ' ' a prating bold counsellor that hath been
heretofore at the Navy Office, and noted for a great eater and
drinker, not for quantity, but of the best" (Pepys).
210 ANDREW MARVELL.
Sir Courteney Poole and he contend
Which should the other most commend,
For what that day they spoke ;
The man that gave that woeful tax, 130
And sweeping all our chimney-stacks,
Excises us for smoke.
The Hanmers, Herberts, Sandys, Musgraves,
Fathers and sons, like coupled slaves,
They were not to be sundered.
The tale of all that there did sup
On Chequer tallies was scored up,
And made above a hundred.
Our greatest barn could not have held
The belly-timber that they felled, 140
For mess was ricked on mess.
'T was such a treat, that I'm afraid
The reckoning never will be paid
Without another cess.
133. Sir John Hanmer was M.P. for Evesham ; Sir Thomas
Hanmer, Bart., for Flintshire. There were several Herberts
and Sandys in this Parliament. Sir Philip Musgrave, Bart.,
was M.P. for Westmoreland, and Christopher Musgrave for
THE CHEQUER INN. 211
They talked about, and made such din,
That scarce the lady could hedge in
The Papishes and Frenches.
On them she was allowed to rail,
But, and thereby does hang a tale,
Not one word of the wenches. 150
The host, who sat at lower end,
The healths in order up did send,
Nor of his own took care.
But down the physic bottle threw,
And took his wine when 't was his due,
In spite of pothecary.
They drank, I know not who had most,
Till King both hostess kissed and host,
And clapped him on the back ;
And prithee why so pale ? Then swore 160
Should they indict him o'er and o'er
He'd bring him off, y-sack.
Then all said Ay, who had said No,
And now, who would, 't was time to go,
For grace they did not stay.
And for to save the serving men
The pains of coming in again,
The guests took all away.
212 ANDREW MARVELL.
Candlesticks, forks, salts, plates, spoons, knives,
(Like sweetmeats for their girls and wives), 170
And table-linen went ;
I saw no more, but hither ran,
Lest some should take me for the man,
And I for them be shent.
THE DOCTOR TURNED JUSTICE.
LLEWELLIN, though physician to the King,
Found he was grown a drug both Fall and Spring ;
Nor on one fee through the whole year could seize,
(Not in an epidemical disease).
No doubtful maid did at his chamber call,
So much as to discuss her urinal ;
No lord to treat a clap would him endure,
No lady an abortion to procure ;
And in whole Court the most obsequious breech
From his unskilful hand disdained a leech. 10
He knew not how a poison to instil :
(What doctor e'er could neither cure nor kill ?)
Languishing thus to live, and almost spent,
Impatient he, because he had no patient,
What shall he do ? Shall he himself disgrace,
To paste p pills at every p g-place ?
Or in this dignity, and at this age,
Draw vicious teeth, and drink toads on the stage ?
i. Dr. Martin Llewellin, poet and doctor, was appointed
physician to Charles II. in 1660, but afterwards he settled at
Great Wycombe, and was elected Mayor in 1671. (Anthony
2i 4 ANDREW MARVELL.
Ingenious hunger rather does suggest
To turn a country-justice were his best ; 20
With clerk and 'pothecary to divide,
(Gizzard on one, liver on t'other side).
While bribes and fees the people pay in awe,
(In dread both of his physic and his law) :
Although Hippocrates ne'er sent to gaol,
Nor Galen, ever that we read, took bail.
This he resolves : and under Bridgeman's wax,
To Wycombe in his climateric packs ;
Where, that he also might their Mayor be chose,
The short remainder of his pence he sows. 30
And now, instead of clyster-pipe and stool,
The sword and mace usher the formal fool.
To gain and power thus far his way was plain,
(Unbridled power, uninterrupted gain,)
When, see the spite, a Quaker spoils his aim :
(So agues still are the physician's shame,)
Rants from a cobbler, grown a doctor there,
As from a doctor, Llewellin a Mayor ;
It seemed that Fate had sent him to undo
The magistrate, and the physician too. 40
But soon our Wycombe armourer transplants
To gaol at Aylesbury his rival Rants ;
Two birds he hopes to hit thus with one sling,
The Quaker first, and by him doctor King ;
And yet what justice ever could before
27. Sir Orlando Bridgeman was Keeper of the Great Seal.
THE DOCTOR TURNED JUSTICE. 215
Remove a nuisance to his neighbour's door ?
Fanatics thus the bishop's mark are made,
Not out of zeal, but as they spoil their trade.
Henceforth, ye sons of ^Esculapius high,
Lay your Sennectus and Riverius by : 50
If you would thrive, then learn to practise thus,
No recipe is like a mittimus.
WHEN plate was at pawn, and fob at an ebb,
And spider might weave in bowels its web,
And stomach as empty as brain :
Then Charles without acre,
Did swear by his Maker,
If e'er I see England again,
I'll have a religion all of my own,
Whether Popish or Protestant shall not be known ^
And if it prove troublesome, I will have none.
I'll have a long Parliament always to friend, 10
And furnish my treasure as fast as I spend,
And if they will not, they shall have an end.
I'll have a Council shall sit always still,
And give me a licence to do what I will
And two secretaries shall p through a quill.
ROYAL RESOLUTIONS. 217
My insolent brother shall bear all the sway -,
If Parliament murmur, I'll send him away,
And call him again as soon as I may.
I'll have a rare son, in marrying though marred,
Shall govern (if not my kingdom) my guard, 20
And shall be successor to me or Gerard.
I'll have a new London instead of the old,
With wide streets and uniform to my own mould ;
But if they build it too fast, I'll bid 'em hold.
The ancient nobility I will lay by,
And new ones create, their rooms to supply,
And they shall raise fortunes for my own fry.
Some one I'll advance from a common descent,
So high that he shall hector the Parliament,
And all wholesome laws for the public prevent, 30
21. Charles, Baron Gerard, was Gentleman of the Bed
chamber to Charles II., and Captain of his Guards. He
afterwards became Earl of Macclesfield, and died in 1693.
Monmouth succeeded Lord Gerard in 1668.
218 ANDREW MARVELL.
And I will assert him to such a degree,
That all his foul treasons, though daring and high,
Under my hand and seal shall have indemnity.
And whate'er it costs me, I'll have a French whore,
As bold as Alice Pierce, and as fair as Jane Shore ;
And when I am weary of her, I'll have more.
Which if any bold Commoner dare to oppose,
I'll order my bravos to cut off his nose,
Though for 't I a branch of prerogative lose.
My pimp shall be my Minister Premier, 40
My bawds call Ambassadors far and near,
And my wench shall dispose of conge cPelire.
I'll wholly abandon all public affairs,
And pass all my time with buffoons and players,
And saunter to Nelly when I should be at prayers.
I'll have a fine pond with a pretty decoy,
Where many strange fowl shall feed and enjoy,
And still in their language quack Vive le Roi!
HODGE'S VISION FROM THE MONUMENT.
A COUNTRY clown called Hodge went up to view
The pyramid ; pray mark what did ensue.
When Hodge had numbered up how many score
The airy pyramid contained, he swore
No mortal wight e'er climbed so high before.
To the best vantage placed, he views around
Th' Imperial town, with lofty turrets crowned ;
That wealthy storehouse of the bounteous flood,
Whose peaceful tides o'erflow our land with good.
Confused forms flit by his wondering eyes, 10
And his rapt soul 's o'erwhelmed with ecstasies :
Some God it seems has entered his plain breast,
And with 's abode the rustic mansion blest ;
A mighty change he feels in every part,
Light shines in 's eyes, and wisdom rules his heart.
So when her pious son fair Venus shewed
His flaming Troy, with slaughtered Uardans strewed,
She purged his optics, filled with mortal night,
And Troy's sad doom he read by Heaven's light.
Such light divine broke on the clouded eyes 20
Of humble Hodge.
220 ANDREW MARVELL.
Regions remote, courts, councils, policies,
The circling wiles of tyrants' treacheries
He views, discerns, deciphers, penetrates,
From Charles's Dukes, to Europe's armed states.
First he beholds proud Rome and France combined,
By double vassalage, to enslave mankind ;
That would the soul, this would the body sway ;
Their bulls and edicts none must disobey.
For these with war sad Europe they inflame, 30
Rome says for God, and France declares for fame :
See, sons of Satan, know religion's force
Is gentleness ; fame bought with blood, a curse.
He whom all styled delight of human kind,
Justice and mercy, truth with honour joined ;
His kindly rays cherished the teeming earth,
And struggling virtue blessed with prosperous birth ;
Like Chaos you the tottering globe invade,
Religion cheat, and war ye make a trade.
Next the lewd palace of the plotting King, 40
To 's eyes new scenes of frantic folly bring.
" Behold," says he, " the fountain of our woe,
From whence our vices and our ruin flow.
Here parents their own offspring prostitute,
By such vile arts to obtain some viler suit ;
Here blooming youth adore Priapus' shrine,
And priests pronounce him sacred and divine.
The goatish god behold in his alcove
(The secret scene of damned incestuous love),
Melting in lust, and drunk like Lot he lies 50
HODGE'S VISION. 221
Betwixt two bright daughter-divinities.
Oh that like Saturn he had eat his brood,
And had been thus stained with their impious blood ;
He had in that less ill, more manhood shewed.
Cease, cease (O Charles) thus to pollute our isle,
Return, return to thy long-wished exile ;
There with thy Court defile thy neighbour states,
And with thy crimes precipitate their fates. '
See where the Duke in damned divan does sit,
To 's vast designs racking his pigmy wit ; 60
Whilst a choice knot of th' Ignatian crew
The ways to murder, treason, conquest shew.
Dissenters they oppress with laws severe,
That whilst to wound these innocents we fear,
Their cursed sect we may be forced to spare.
Twice the reformed must fight a bloody prize,
That Rome and France may on their ruin rise.
Old Bonner single heretics did burn,
These reformed cities into ashes turn,
And every year new fires do make us mourn. 70
Ireland stands ready for his cruel reign ;
Well fattened once, she gapes for blood again,
For blood of English martyrs basely slain.
Our valiant youth abroad must learn the trade
Of unjust war, their country to invade,
Whilst others here d-o guard us, to prepare
Our galled necks his iron yoke to bear.
Lo, how the Wight already is betrayed,
And Bashaw Holmes does the poor isle invade.
79. Sir Robert Holmes, Governor of the Isle of Wight.
222 ANDREW MARVELL.
T' ensure his plot, France must her legions lend, 80
Rome to restore, and to enthrone Rome's friend.
'T is in return, James does our fleet betray,
(That fleet whose thunder made the world obey.)
Ships once our safety, and our glorious might,
Are doomed with worms and rottenness to fight ;
Whilst France rides sovereign o'er the British main,
Our merchants robbed, and our brave seamen ta'en.
Thus this rash Phaeton with fury hurled,
And rapid rage, consumes our British world.
Blast him, O Heavens ! in his mad career, 90
And let this isle no more his frenzy fear.
Cursed James, 'tis he that all good men abhor,
False to thy self, but to thy friend much more ;
To him who did thy promised pardon hope,
Whilst with pretended joy he kissed the rope :
O'erwhelmed with grief, and gasping out a lie,
Deceived and unprepared, thou let'st him die,
With equal gratitude and charity.
In spite of Jermyn, and of black-mouthed fame,
This Stuart's trick legitimates thy name. 100
With one consent we all her death desire,
Who durst her husband's and her king's conspire.
And now just Heaven's prepared to set us free,
Heaven and our hopes are both opposed by thee.
Thus fondly thou dost Hyde's old treason own,
Thus mak'st thy new-suspected treason known.
HODGE'S VISION. 223
Bless me ! What's that at Westminster I see ?
That piece of legislative pageantry !
To our dear James has Rome her conclave lent ?
Or has Charles bought the Paris Parliament ? 1 10
None else would promote James with so much zeal,
Who by proviso hopes the crown to steal.
See how in humble guise the slaves advance,
To tell a tale of army, and of France ;
Whilst proud prerogative in scornful guise,
Their fear, love, duty, danger does despise.
There, in a bribed committee, they contrive
To give our birthrights to prerogative.
Give, did I say ? They sell, and sell so dear,
That half each tax Danby distributes there. 120
Danby, 'tis fit the price so great should be,
They sell religion, sell their liberty.
These vipers have their mother's entrails torn,
And would by force a second time be born ;
They haunt the place to which you once were sent,
This ghost of a departed Parliament.
Gibbets and halters countrymen prepare,
Let none, let none these renegades spare.
When that day comes we'll part the sheep and goats,
The spruce bribed monsieurs from the true grey coats.
New Parliaments, like manna, all tastes please, [130
But kept too long, our food turns our disease.
From that loathed sight Hodge turned his weeping
And London thus alarms with loyal cries.
224 ANDREW MARVELL.
" Though common danger does approach so nigh,
This stupid town sleeps in security.
Out of your golden dreams awake, awake,
Your all, your all, though you see 't not, 's at stake ;
More dreadful fires approach your falling town
Than those that burnt your stately structures down,
Such fatal fires as once in Smithfield shone. [140
If then ye stay till Edwards orders give,
No mortal arm your safety can retrieve.
See how with golden baits the crafty Gaul
Has bribed our geese to yield the capitol.
And will ye tamely see yourselves betrayed ?
Will none stand up in our dear country's aid ?
Self-preservation, Nature's first great law,
All the creation, except man, does awe ;
'Twas in him fixed, till lying priests defaced 1 50
His Heaven-born mind, and Nature's tablets razed.
Tell me, (ye forging crew), what law revealed
By God, to Kings the Jus Divinum sealed ?
If to do good, ye Jus Divinum call,
It is the grand prerogative of all r
If to do ill unpunished be their right,
Such power 's not granted that great king of night.
Man's life moves on the poles of hope and fear,
Reward and pain all orders do revere.
But if your dear lord sovereign you would spare, 160
Admonish him in his bloodthirsty heir :
142. Sir James Edwards, Lord Mayor, 1678-9
HODGE'S VISION. 225
So when the royal lion does offend,
The beaten cur's example makes him mend."
This said, poor Hodge, then in a broken tone,
Cried out, " O Charles ! thy life ! thy life ! thy crown !
Ambitious James and bloody priests conspire,
Plots, Papists, murders, massacre, and fire;
Poor Protestants ! " With that his eyes did roll,
His bodv fell, out fled his frighted soul.
OCEANA AND BRITANNIA.
Oceana. WHITHER, O whither wander I forlorn
Fatal to friends, and to my foes a scorn.
My pregnant womb is labouring to bring forth
Thy offspring, Archon, heir to thy just worth.
Archon, O Archon, hear my groaning cries !
Lucina, help, assuage my miseries !
Saturnian spite pursues me through the earth,
No corner 's left to hide my long- wished birth.
Great Queen o' th' isles, yield me a safe retreat
From the crowned Gods, that would my infants eat.
To me, O Delos, on my childbed smile, [10
My happy seed shall fix thy floating isle :
I feel fierce pangs assault my teeming womb,
Lucina, O Britannia, mother come !
Brit. What doleful shrieks pierce my affrighted
Shall I ne'er rest from this lewd ravisher ?
Rapes, burnings, murders are his royal sport,
These modish monsters haunt his perjured court.
L.Oceana, England. This, with many other phrases in the
poem, is taken from the "Oceana" published by Marvell's
friend, Harrington, in 1656.
i7.-The Duke of York.
OCEANA AND BRITANNIA. 227
No tumbling player so oft e'er changed his shape
As this goat, fox, wolf, timorous French ape. 20
True Protestants in Roman habits dressed,
With Scroggs he baits, that ravenous butcher's beast ;
Tresilian Tames, that fair-faced crocodile,
Tearing their hearts, at once doth weep and smile :
Neronian flames at London do him please,
At Oxford plots to act Agathocles.
His plots revealed, his mirth is at an end,
And 's fatal hour shall know no foe nor friend.
Last Martyr's Day I saw a cherub stand
Across my seas, one foot upon the land, 30
The other on th' enthralled Gallic shore,
Aloud proclaim their time shall be no more.
This mighty power Heaven's equal balance swayed,
And in one scale crowns, croziers, sceptres laid ;
F th' other a sweet smiling babe did lie,
Circled with glories, decked with majesty.
With steady hand he poised the golden pair,
The gilded gewgaws mounted in the air,
The ponderous babe descending in its scale,
Leapt on my shore 40
Nature triumphed, joy echoed through the earth,
22. Sir William Scroggs, the judge, was a butcher's son.
23. " Tresilian " (from Sir Robert Tresilian, Lord Chief
Justice under Richard II.) was a common epithet with the
writers of lampoons at this time. Some editions have " Jones "
for "James," that is, Sir Thomas Jones, Chief Justice of the
26. Parliament met at Oxford in 1681.
228 ANDREW MARVELL.
The heav'ns bowed down to see the blessed birth.
What's that I hear ? A new-born babe's soft cries,
And joyful mother's tender lullabies !
"Tis so, behold my daughter 's past all harms,
Cradling an infant in her fruitful arms ;
The very same th' angelic vision shewed
In mien, in majesty how like a god.
What a firm health does on her visage dwell ?
Her sparkling eyes immortal youth foretell. 5
Rome, Sparta, Venice, could not all bring forth
So strong, so temperate, such lasting worth.
Marpesia, from the north with speed advance,
Thy sister's birth brings thy deliverance.
Fergusian founders this just babe exceeds
In the arts of peace and mighty martial deeds.
Ye Panopeians, kneel unto your equal queen,
Safe from the foreign sword and barbarous skeen ;
Transports of joy divert my yearning heart,
From my dear child, my soul, my better part. 60
Heaven shower her choicest blessings on thy womb,
Our present help, our stay in time to come.
Thou best of daughters, mothers, matrons, say
What forced thy birth, and got this glorious day ?
Oceana. 'Scaped the slow jaws o' th' grinding
I fell i' th' traps of Rome's dire murderers ;
53. Scotland (from Harrington).
55. Fergus was the first of the legendary kings of Scotland.
57. Panopeians, the Irish (Harrington).
QCEANA AND BRITANNIA. 229
Twice rescued by my loyal senate's power,
Twice I expected my babe's happy hour.
Malignant force twice checked their pious aid,
And to my foes as oft my state betrayed. 70
Great, full of pain, in a dark winter's night,
Threatened, pursued, I 'scaped by sudden flight,
Pale fear gave speed to my weak trembling feet,
And far I fled e'er day our world could greet.
That dear loved light which the whole globe doth
Spurred on my flight, and added to my fear ;
Whilst black Conspiracy, that child of night,
In royal purple clad, out-dares the light.
By day herself the faith's defender styles,
By night digs pits, and spreads her Papal toils. 80
By day she to the pompous chapel goes,
By night with York adores Rome's idol-shows ;
Witness, ye stars and silent powers-of night,
Her treacheries have forced my innocent flight.
With the broad day my danger too drew near,
Of help, of counsel void, how should I steer ?
I' th' pulpit damned, strumpet at court proclaimed,
Where should I hide, where should I rest defamed
Tortured in thought, I raised my weeping eyes
And sobbing voice to the all-helping skies. 90
As by Heaven sent, a reverend sire appears,
Charming my grief, stopping my flood of tears :
His busy circling orbs (two restless spies)
Glanced to and fro, outranging Argos' eyes.
23 o ANDREW MARVELL.
Like fleeting time, on 's front one lock did grow,
From his glib tongue torrents of words did flow.
Propose, resolve, Agrarian forty-one,
Lycurgus, Brutus, Solon, Harrington.
He said he knew me in my swadling bands,
Had often danced me in his careful hands. 100
He knew Lord Archon too, then wept and swore,
Enshrined in me, his fame he did adore.
His name I asked, he said, Politico,
Descended from the divine Nicolo.
My state he knew, my danger seemed to dread,
And to my safety vowed hand, heart, and head.
Grateful returns I up to Heaven send,
That in distress had sent me such a friend.
I asked him where I was. Pointing, he shewed
Oxford's old towers, once the learned arts' abode ;
(Once great in fame, now a piratic port, [no
Where Romish priests and elvish monks resort.)
He added, near a new-built college stood,
Endowed by Plato for the public good.
Thither allured by learned honest men,
Plato vouchsafed once more to live again.
Securely there I might myself repose
From my fierce griefs, and my more cruel foes.
Tired with long flights, e'en hunted down with fear,
97. In 1641 Charles I. offered to reduce the royal forests o
their former bounds.
104. Nicholo Machiavelli, with whom Shaftesbury \vas often
OCEAN A AND BRITANNIA. 231
The welcome news- my drooping soul did cheer. 1 20
His pleasing words shortened the time and way,
And me beguiled at Plato's house to stay.
When we came in he told me (after rest)
He'd shew me Plato and 's Venetian guest.
I scarce replied, with weariness oppressed.
To my desired apartment I repaired,
Invoking sleep and Heaven's almighty guard.
My waking cares and stabbing frights recede,
And nodding sleep dropped on my drowsy head.
At last the summons of a busy bell, 130
And glimmering lights did sleep's kind mists dispel.
From bed I stole, and creeping by the wall,
Through a small chink I spied a spacious hall ;
Tapers as thick as stars did shed their light
Around the place, and made a day of night.
The curious art of some great master's hand
Adorned the room Hyde, Clifford, Danby, stand
In one large piece, next them the two Dutch wars,
In bloody colours paint our fatal jars.
Here London flames in clouds of smoke aspire, 140
Done to the life, I'd almost cried out fire.
But living figures did my eyes divert
From these and many more of wondrous art.
There entered in three mercenary bands ;
(The different captains had distinct commands).
The beggar's desperate troop did first appear,
Littleton led, proud S[eymou]r had the rear.
The disguised Papists under Garroway,
232 ANDREW MARVELL.
Talbot Lieutenant (none had better pay).
Next greedy Lee led parti -coloured slaves, 150
Deaf fools i' th' right, i' th' wrong sagacious knaves.
Brought up by M , then a nobler train,
(In malice mighty, impotent in brain)
The Pope's solicitors brought into th' hall,
Not guilty lay, much guilty spiritual.
I also spied behind a private screen
Colbert and Portsmouth, York and Mazarine.
Immediately in close cabal they join,
And all applaud the glorious design.
'Gainst me and my loved senate's free-born breath
Dire threats I heard, the hall did echo death. [160
A curtain drawn, another scene appeared,
A tinkling bell, a mumbling priest I heard.
At elevation every knee adored
The baker's craft, infallible's vain lord.
When Catiline with vipers did conspire
To murder Rome, and bury it in fire,
A sacramental bowl of human gore
Each villain took, and as he drank he swore.
The cup denied, to make their plot complete, 170
These Catilines their conjured gods did eat.
Whilst to their breaden whimsies they did kneel,
I crept away, and to the door did steal :
As I got out, by Providence I flew
.Probably "Musgrave" or " Mulgrave."
157. Charles Colbert, the French Ambassador.
OCEANA AND BRITANNIA. 233
To this close wood ; too late they did pursue.
That dreadful night my childbed throes brought on
My cries moved yours and Heaven's compassion.
Britannia. O happy day ! a jubilee proclaim,
Daughter adore th' unutterable name.
With grateful heart breathe out thyself in prayer, 1 80
In the meantime thy babe shall be my care.
There is a man, my island's hope and grace,
The chief delight and joy of human race ;
Exposed himself to war, in tender age,
To free his country from the Gallic rage ;
With all the graces blessed his riper years,
And full-blown virtue waked the tyrant's fears.
By 's sire rejected, but by Heaven he 's called
To break my yoke, and rescue the enthralled.
This, this is he who with a stretched-out hand 190
And matchless might shall free my groaning land.
On earth's proud basilisks he '11 justly fall,
Like Moses' rod, and prey upon them all.
He '11 guide my people through the raging seas,
To holy wars and certain victories.
His spotless fame, and his immense desert,
Shall plead love's cause, and storm this virgin's heart.
She like ^Egeria shall his breast inspire.
With justice, wisdom, and celestial fire.
Like Numa he her dictates shall obey, 200
And by her oracles the world shall sway.
182. The Duke of Monmouth.
ALBEMARLE, George Monck, Duke of, 19, 28, 38,
44, 124, 126, 127, 140, 150, 151, 157.
Anglesey, Arthur Annesley, Earl of, 86, 185.
Apsley, Sir Allen, M.P., 27, 57, 139, 159.
Argyll, Duke of, 191.
Arlington, Henry, Earl of, 25, 34, 35, 51, 52, 64,
1 10, 134, 146, 147, 192, 194.
Arundel of Wardour, Lord, 79, 179.
Aubrey, John, 173.
Ay res, 10, 121.
BALES, Tom, 209.
Beaken (PBeachem), 58, 159.
Belasyse, Sir Henry, M.P., 180.
Belasyse, Lady, So, 180.
Belasyse, John, Lord, 80, 179.
Bennet, Sir Henry, M.P. See Arlington, Earl of.
Berkeley, Sir Charles, M.P. See Falmouth, Lord.
Berkeley, Sir John, 135.
Berkenhead, Sir John, M.P., 162, 208.
236 ANDREW MAR FELL.
Bertie, Hon. Peregrine, M.P., 88, 185, 204.
Birch, Col. John, M.P., 25, 135.
Blake, Admiral, 19, 88, 124, 126, 127.
Blood, Captain, 65, 68, 113, 164, 165, 195.
Bludworth, Sir Thomas, M.P., 35, 148.
Boynton, Miss, 47, 155.
Bridgeman, Sir Orlando, M.P., 214.
Bristol, Earl of, 52, 156.
Broderick, Sir Alan, M.P., 27, 57, 139, 140, 159.
Brooke, George, 182.
Brooke, Lord, 3.
Brouncker, Henry, M.P. (" Bronkard"), 26, 136.
Buckingham, George Villiers, Duke of, 33, 95, 146.
Bucknell, Sir William, M.P., 64, 164.
Bulteel, John, M.P., 58, 159.
CAMBRIDGE, Edgar, Duke of, 62, 161.
Carnegie, Robert. See Southesk, Earl of.
Cartaret, Sir George, M.P., 27, 32, 78, 138, 177.
Castlemaine, Lady (afterwards Duchess of Cleveland),
23. 5i 52, 64, 70, 88, 92, 132, 146, 163, 168,
1 80, 185, 192.
Castlemaine, Roger Palmer, Earl of, 34, 52, 70, 132,
Charles I., 12, 51, 52, 99, 108, 123, 230.
Charles II., 30, 31, 33, 37, 49-54, 63, 66-69, 70-72,
75, 76, 81-83, 86, 87, 90-93, 95-97, 100, 103-12,
130, 147-4$, 154, 156, 165-67, 171, 181, 1 86,
188, 192, 201, 213, 216-18, 220-25.
Charlton, Sir Job, M.P., 26, 136.
Cheyne, Charles, M.P., 209.
Cholmondeley, Sir Thomas, M.P., 209.
Churchill, Arabella, 75, 171.
Churchill, Sir Winston, M.P., 78, 177.
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of, 25, 26, 32, 35-38,
48, 49-52, 55-62, 75, 86, 129, 130, 136, 141,
142, 149, 156, 158, 159-61, 222, 231.
Clarges, Sir Thomas, M.P., 162, 163.
Clayton, Lady, 167.
Clayton, Sir Robert, M.P., 68, 167.
Cleveland, Duchess of. See Castlemaine, Lady.
Clifford, Lord, 20, 63, 75, 79, 96, 128, 172-73. 178,232.
Clutterbuck, Sir Thomas, 58, 159.
Cobham, Lord, 182.
Colbert, Charles, Marquis de Croissy, 232.
Coleman, Edward, 180, 222.
Cornbury, Henry Hyde, Viscount, 28, 140, 157.
Coventry, Henry, M.P., 28, 33, 36,48, in, 141,
Coventry, Sir John, M.P., 64, 162, 163, 201-3.
Coventry, Sir William, M.P., 28, 51, 52, 140, 141,
Cromwell, Oliver, no, 165, 226, 230.
Crowther, Joseph, D.D., 22, 130.
DANBY, Thomas, Earl of, 75, 83, 86, 88, 99, 100,
102, 171, 172, 174, 175, 183, 185, 186, 188, 190,
204-6, 211, 223, 231.
238 ANDREW MARVELL.
Daniel, Mr., 43, 152.
Darby, John, 77, 174.
Davenant, Sir William, 12, 122.
Deane, Col. Richard, 19, 124, 127.
Defoe, /Daniel, 193.
Denham, Sir John, 23, 25, 56, 71, 128, 152.
Denham, Lady, 22, 32, 56, 62, 131, 161.
Doleman, Col. Sir Thomas, M.P., 35, 148, 207.
Dryden, John, 119, 144, 146.
Duncombe, Sir John, M.P., 27, 42, 47, 139, 154.
EAGER, , 58.
Eaton, Mr., 49, 156.
Edwards, Sir James, 224.
Essex, Earl of, 122, 123.
FALMOUTH, Lady, 181.
Falmouth, Lord, 27, 71, 130, 134, 139, 169.
Finch, Sir Heneage, M.P., 27, 86, 96, 136, 185.
Fitzgerald, Colonel, 77, 80, 175, 181.
Fitzharding, Viscount. See Falmouth, Lord.
Flecknoe, Richard, 3-9, 119.
Ford, Sir Henry, M.P., 209.
Fox, Sir Stephen, M.P., 26, 135.
GARROWAY, William, M.P., 30, 83, 142, 144, 145,
155, 183, 231.
Gerard, Charles, Lord, 217.
Gibbs, Miss, 133.
Gloucester, Duke of, 70, 168.
Goodrich, Francis, M.P., 24, 134.
Goodrich, Sir John, M.P., 24, 134.
Gwyn, Nell, 88, 92, iSS, 201-3, 218.
HALL, Jacob, 132.
Hanmer, John, M.P., 210.
Ilanmer, Sir Thomas, Bart., M.P., 208.
Harrington, James, 228, 230.
Henrietta Maria, Queen, 71, 128, 130, 148.
Henry IV., of France, 51.
Higgins, Sir Thomas, M.P., 27, 137, 138.
Hobbes, Thomas, 83, 184.
Hoby, Peregrine, M.P., 209.
Holies, Denzil, Lord, 33, 36, 146.
Hollis, Thomas, 194.
Holmes, Sir Robert, 221.
Holt, Sir Robert, Bart, M.P., 208.
Hooke, Dr. Robert, 20, 128.
Howard, Sir Robert, M.P., 29, 64, 142, 144, 145,
Hyde, Ann, Duchess of York, 22, 23, 71, 78, 129,
131, 132, 161, 169.
Hyde, Edward. See Clarendon, Earl of.
Hyde, Sir Frederick, M.P., 27, 138.
JERMYN, Henry (afterwards Earl of Dover), 23, So,
132, 133, 180, 181.
Jones, Sir Thomas, 227.
Jonson, Ben, IO, II, 121, 122.
240 ANDREW MARVELL.
KATHERINE of Braganza, Queen, 37, 61, 71, 83, 160.
Kendal, Duke of, 62, 161.
Keroualle, Louise de, 82, 88, 184, 185, 192, 232.
Killigrew, Thomas, 73, 170.
King, , 208, 210.
Kipps, 58, 159.
LAKE, Mr., 162, 163.
Laud, Archbishop, 108.
Lauderdale, John, Duke of, 74, 83, 87, 88, 96, 129,
171, 184, 215.
Lawley, Sir Francis, Bart., M.P., 209.
Lee, Sir Thomas, M.P., 31, 83, 183.
Legge, William, M.P., 42, 151.
Leslie, John, Bishop of Clogher, 59, 195.
Littleton, Sir Thomas, M.P., 30, 145, 231.
Llewellin, Dr. Martin, 213-15.
Loftus, Mr., 80.
Louis XIV., 35, 36, 51, 64, 83.
Lovelace, John, Lord, 29, 143.
MAIDALCHINA, Donna Olympia, 64, 163, 164.
Mansell, Sir Edward, Bart., M.P., 207.
Marlborough, John, Duke of, 172, 177.
May, Baptist, M.P., 34, 35, 47, 147, 203.
May, Thomas, 10-13, 120-23.
Mazarine, Duchess, 107, 192, 232.
Middleton, Mrs. Jane, 47, 155.
Mitchell, James, 114, 195.
Modena, Mary d'Este, Duchess of, 78, 79, 187.
Monck, George. See Albemarle, Duke of.
Monmouth, Duke of, 64, 162, 163, 202, 217, 233.
Montague, George, M.P.^ 207.
Mordaunt, John, Lord, 29, 32, 35, 143, 145.
Morgan, William, M.P., 207.
Morley, Colonel, M.P., 58, 159.
Morrice, Sir William, M.P., 34, 147.
Musgrave, Christopher, M.P., 210.
Musgrave, Sir Philip, Bart., M.P., 210.
NEVILLE, Richard, M.P., 209.
Newcastle, Margaret, Duchess of, 22, 130.
Nostradamus, Michael, 95, 187.
GATES, Titus, 179, 180,
O'Bryan, , 64, 162, 163, 202.
Orleans, Henrietta, Duchess of, 72, 170, 184, 192.
Ormonde, Duke of, 164, 165.
Osborne, Sir Thomas. See Danby, Earl of.
PALMER, Mrs. See Castlemaine, Lady.
Paston, Sir Robert, M.P., 24, 134.
Patrick, Father, 77, no, 174.
Peake, Sir William, 67, 167.
Pembroke, Philip Herbert, Earl of, II, 122.
Peterborough, Henry Mordaunt, Earl of, 78, 177.
Pett, Sir Peter, 46, 52, 152, 153.
Player, Sir Thomas, M.P., 93, 187.
Poole, Sir Courteney, M.P., 27, 137, 210.
242 ANDREW MARVELL.
Porter, Charles, 23, 80, 133, 181.
Porter, Tom, 180.
Portman, Sir William, Bart., M.P., 209.
Portsmouth, Duchess of. See Keroualle, Louise de.
Poultney, Sir William, M.P., 56, 157, 158, 162, 163.
Powell, Mr., 28, 140.
Pratt, Mr., 59, 1 60.
Prodgers, Edward, M.P., 26, 135.
RALEIGH, Sir Walter, 82-89, 183.
Richmond, Charles -Stewart, Duke of, 46, 153.
Rupert, Prince, 44, 150.
Ruyter, De, 35, 39, 43"45> 47, 72.
ST. ALBANS, Henry Jermyn, Earl of, 21, 31, 33, 35,
36, 71, 128, 129, 133, 148.
St. John, , 59.
Sandys, Col. Samuel, M.P., 31, 145, 210.
Sandys, Sir Thomas, 64, 162, 163, 202, 210.
Sandwich, Earl of, 168.
Scott, Col. John, 77, 80, 175, 181.
Scroggs, Sir William, 227.
Seymour, Edward, M.P., 29, 63, 64, 142, 161, 206,
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley, Eail of, 92, 141, 187,
Sharp, Archbishop, 115, 171, 195-
Sheldon, Gilbert, Bishop, 47, 154.
Shrewsbury, Countess of, 133.
Sidney, Henry, 23, 132.
Southampton, Earl of, 47, 154.
Southesk, Ann, Countess of, 71, 169.
Southesk, Robert Carnegie, Earl of, 71, 169.
Spragge, Sir Edward, M.P., 40, 150.
Stanley, Sir William, 105, 191.
Steward, , M.P., 26, 135.
Stewart, Miss Frances, 45, 46, 153.
Strangways, Col. Giles, M.P., 29, 30, 141.
Swales, Sir Solomon, M.P., 27, 138.
TALBOT, Col. Richard (afterwards Duke of Tyrconnel),
27i 79, 139, 175, 179, 232.
Tayleur, William, 29, 143, 145.
Temple, Sir Richard, M.P., 29, 30, 64, 141, 142.
Temple, Sir William, M.P., 107, 192.
Thurland, Sir Edward, M.P., 27, 137.
Tomkins, Sir Thomas, M.P., 28, 48, 49, 140, 155.
Tredenham, Joseph, M.P., 208.
Trelawney, Sir Jonathan, Bart., M.P., 27, 137.
Tresilian, Sir Robert, 227.
Turner, Sir Edward, M.P., 24, 48-50, 133, 155.
VINER, Sir Robert, 66-68,94, 99> 100, 102, 165, 187,
WALLER, Edmund, M.P., 29, 128, 143.
Wheler, Sir Charles, M.P., 98, 189.
Whorwood, Brome, M.P., 29, 142.
244 ANDREW MARVELL.
Wild, , 208.
Williams, , M.P., 29, 143.
Williamson, Sir Joseph, M. P., no, 194.
Witt, De, 35, 1 10.
Wolstenholme, Sir John, M.P., 59, 160.
Wood, Sir Henry, M.P., 26, 135.
Woodcock, Sir Thomas, M. P., 64, 164.
Worcester, Earl of, 58, 159.
Wren, Matthew, M.P., 26, 58, 136, 159.
Wroth, , 162, 163.
YORK, Ann Hyde, Duchess of. See Hyde, Ann.
York, Mary d'Este, Duchess of. See Modena,
York, James, Duke of, 22, 23, 69, 71, 75, 76, 77-79,
81, 83, 86, 90, 93, 94, 103, no, 129, 130, 131,
136, 141, 148, 154, 156, 168, 169, 171, 173, 178,
180, 186, 188, 217, 221-29, 232.
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